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Szczepienia a umieralność dzieci

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============ Forwarded message ============
From : Maria Majewska
Date : Sun, 06 May 2012 08:22:44 +0200
Subject : Szczepienia a umieralność dzieci
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Witam  Państwa,

W krajach rozwiniętych  szczepionkowy establiszment  agresywnie odmawia przeprowadzenia  podstawowych badan,  które porównałyby zdrowie dzieci szczepionych i nieszczepionych (nawet je torpeduje). Każe rodzicom wierzyć na słowo,  że szczepienia są konieczne i ratują  życie.  Jest to sytuacja  nieporównywalna z promowaniem i stosowaniem wszystkich innych leków,  dla których trzeba udokumentować  bezpieczeństwo i skuteczność.   

Jednak w Afryce prowadzi się takie badania i ich wyniki są przerażające.  Okazało się bowiem,  że afrykańskie niemowlęta zaszczepione szczepionkami  DTP umierały  kilka  razy częściej niż te nieszczepione,  szczególnie silnie  szczepionki DTP  zwiększały  umieralność  dziewcząt.

Szczepionki  przeciw odrze  o wysokim stężeniu wirusowych antygenów (zalecane dla krajów Afryki przez WHO) również zwiększały umieralność dzieci, zwłaszcza dziewcząt.   Natomiast zachorowanie na odrę  nie zwiększało umieralności,  a w perspektywie 4 lat po chorobie obserwowano nawet lepszą przeżywalność dzieci, które przeszły odrę niż tych, które nie chorowały na nią.               

Te wyniki naukowe obalają szczepionkowe mity.  Prawdopodobnie znajomość tych danych powoduje, że wykształceni  rodzice na Zachodzie coraz bardziej masowo odmawiają szczepień.  Nauka i praktyka przeczą bowiem ich bezpieczeństwu, tym bardziej że lawinowo rośnie armia dzieci trwale okaleczonych przez toksyczne szczepienia.  Podobnie amerykańskie i europejskie dane pokazują, że znacznie więcej jest dziś ofiar szczepień niż chorób zakaźnych, choć tysiące ludzi nadal na nie choruje.  

W tym kontekście – przymusowe szczepienia nadal stosowane w Polsce wydają się ocierać o zbrodnię.  Ludzie, którzy wymuszają na rodzicach szczepienia ich dzieci (często wbrew ich woli) mają bowiem zawodowy obowiązek znać te dane, gdyż są one powszechnie dostępne w bazie publikowanych prac naukowych.  Łatwo wyleczalne choroby zakaźne nie są obecnie zagrożeniem dla  życia i zdrowia ludzi,  są nim natomiast zdecydowanie toksyczne szczepienia. 

 

Pozdrawiam

DM

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Int J Epidemiol. 2004 Apr;33(2):374-80.

The introduction of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine and child mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau: an observational study.

Aaby PJensen HGomes JFernandes MLisse IM.

Source

Bandim Health Project, Apartado 861, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. psb@mail.gtelecom.gw" target="_blank">psb@mail.gtelecom.gw

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

and objective Previous studies from areas with high mortality in West Africa have not found diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine to be associated with the expected reduction in mortality, a few studies suggesting increased mortality. We therefore examined mortality when DTP was first introduced in rural areas of Guinea-Bissau in 1984-1987. Setting Twenty villages in four regions have been followed with bi-annual examinations since 1979.

SUBJECTS:

In all, 1657 children aged 2-8 months. Design Children were weighed when attending the bi-annual examinations and they were vaccinated whenever vaccines were available. DTP was introduced in the beginning of 1984, oral polio vaccine later that year. We examined mortality for children aged 2-8 months who had received DTP and compared them with children who had not been vaccinated because they were absent, vaccines were not available, or they were sick.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

Mortality over the next 6 months from the day of examination for vaccinated and unvaccinated children.

RESULTS:

Prior to the introduction of vaccines, children who were absent at a village examination had the same mortality as children who were present. During 1984-1987, children receiving DTP at 2-8 months of age had higher mortality over the next 6 months, the mortality rate ratio (MR) being 1.92 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.52) compared with DTP-unvaccinated children, adjusting for age, sex, season, period, BCG, and region. The MR was 1.81 (95% CI: 0.95, 3.45) for the first dose of DTP and 4.36 (95% CI: 1.28, 14.9) for the second and third dose. BCG was associated with slightly lower mortality (MR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.30, 1.33), the MR for DTP and BCG being significantly inversed. Following subsequent visits and further vaccinations with DTP and measles vaccine, there was no difference in vaccination coverage and subsequent mortality between the DTP-vaccinated group and the initially DTP-unvaccinated group (MR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.44).

CONCLUSIONS:

In low-income countries with high mortality, DTP as the last vaccine received may be associated with slightly increased mortality. Since the pattern was inversed for BCG, the effect is unlikely to be due to higher-risk children having received vaccination. The role of DTP in high mortality areas needs to be clarified.

 

 

 

 

 

Arch Dis Child. 2012 Feb 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Early diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination associated with higher female mortality and no difference in male mortality in a cohort of low birthweight children: an observational study within a randomised trial.

Aaby PRavn HRoth ARodrigues ALisse IMDiness BRLausch KRLund NRasmussen JBiering-Sorensen SWhittle HBenn CS.

Source

Bandim Health Project, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants.

METHODS:

2320 LBW newborns were visited at 2, 6 and 12 months of age to assess nutritional and vaccination status. The authors examined survival until the 6-month visit for children who were DTP vaccinated and DTP unvaccinated at the 2-month visit.

RESULTS:

Two-thirds of the children had received DTP at 2 months and 50 deaths occurred between the 2-month and 6-month visits. DTP vaccinated children had a better anthropometric status for all indices than DTP unvaccinated children. Small mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was the strongest predictor of mortality. The death rate ratio (DRR) for DTP vaccinated versus DTP unvaccinated children differed significantly for girls (DRR 2.45; 95% CI 0.93 to 6.45) and boys (DRR 0.53; 95% CI 0.23 to 1.20) (p=0.018, homogeneity test). Adjusting for MUAC, the overall effect for DTP vaccinated children was 2.62 (95% CI 1.34 to 5.09); DRR was 5.68 (95% CI 1.83 to 17.7) for girls and 1.29 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.97) for boys (p=0.023, homogeneity test). While anthropometric indices were a strong predictor of mortality among boys, there was little or no association for girls.

CONCLUSION:

Surprisingly, even though the children with the best nutritional status were vaccinated early, early DTP vaccination was associated with increased mortality for girls.

 

 

 

Vaccine. 2002 Nov 22;21(1-2):120-6.

Low mortality after mild measles infection compared to uninfected children in rural West Africa.

Aaby PSimondon FSamb BCisse BJensen HLisse IMSoumaré MWhittle H.

Source

Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Parasitaires, IRD, Dakar, Senegal. psb@sol.telecom.gw" target="_blank">psb@sol.telecom.gw

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

It has been assumed that measles infection may be associated with persistent immune suppression and long-term excess mortality. However, few community studies of mortality after measles infection have been carried out. We examined long-term mortality for measles cases, sub-clinical measles cases, and uninfected contacts after an epidemic in rural Senegal.

METHODS:

The study was carried out in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal. Index cases of measles were identified and children less than 7 years of age exposed to measles in the same compound had acute and convalescent blood samples collected. Clinically diagnosed measles cases were serologically confirmed. Children without clinical symptoms were classified as sub-clinical cases if they had a four-fold or greater change in antibody levels between samples collected at exposure and 1 month later and as uninfected if there was no or a two-fold change in antibody levels.

RESULTS:

There were 31 index cases, and among 184 exposed contacts, 35 (19%) children developed clinical measles. Among contacts that did not develop clinical measles, 45% had sub-clinical infection. Measles cases, sub-clinical cases, and uninfected contacts did not differ with respect to nutritional status. However, uninfected children without clinical symptoms and change in antibody level had higher initial measles specific IgG antibody levels and less intensive exposure to the index case. No index or secondary case of measles died in the acute phase of infection nor did any of the children exposed to measles die in the first 2 months after exposure. Exposed children developing clinical measles had lower age-adjusted mortality over the next 4 years than exposed children who did not develop clinical measles (P<0.05). Sub-clinical measles cases tended to have low mortality and compared with uninfected children, exposed children with clinical or sub-clinical measles had lower age-adjusted mortality (mortality ratio (MR)=0.20 (0.06-0.74)). Controlling for background factors had no impact of the estimates.

CONCLUSIONS:

When measles infection is mild, clinical measles has no long-term excess mortality and may be associated with better overall survival than no clinical measles infection. Sub-clinical measles is common among immunised children and is not associated with excess mortality.

 

 

Int J Epidemiol. 1996 Jun;25(3):665-73.

Child mortality following standard, medium or high titre measles immunization in West Africa.

Knudsen KMAaby PWhittle HRowe MSamb BSimondon FSterne JFine P.

Source

Epidemiology Research Unit, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Staten Seruminstitut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the use of high titre measles vaccine in 1989. Subsequent long term follow-up of several trials yielded results suggesting higher mortality among children inoculated with medium and high titre vaccines compared to standard titre vaccines, although none of the individual trials found significant differences in mortality.

METHODS:

Long term survival after standard, medium and high titre measles vaccines has been investigated in a combined analysis of all West African trials with mortality data. In trials from Guinea-Bissau, The Gambia and Senegal, children received medium or high titre vaccines from 4 months of age and were compared to control groups recruited at the same time later receiving standard titre vaccine from 9 months of age. All children were followed up to at least 3 years old.

RESULTS:

Combining trials of high titre vaccines showed higher mortality among the high titre group compared to the standard group: mortality ratio (MR) = 1.33 (95% CI : 1.02-1. 73). Mortality among recipients of medium titre vaccines was not different from that in the standard vaccine group, MR = 1.11 (95% CI: 0.54-2.27). In a combined analysis by sex, the adjusted mortality ratios comparing high titre vaccine with standard vaccine were 1.86 (95% CI : 1.28-2.70) for females and 0.91 (95% CI : 0.61-1.35) for males. The trials were not designed to study long term mortality. Adjustments for several possible sources of bias did not alter the results.

CONCLUSIONS:

The combined analysis showed a decreased survival related to high titre measles vaccine compared with standard titre vaccines, though solely among females. As a result of these studies from West Africa and a study from Haiti, WHO has recommended that high titre measles vaccine no longer be used.

PIP:

A prospective survey of the use of high and medium-titre measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau, the Gambia, and Senegal indicated that this regimen is associated with higher long-term child mortality than the standard titre vaccine. Children enrolled in trials in these three countries received medium or high-titre vaccines at three months of age and survival data were compared to findings from controls who received the standard titre at nine months of age. There were 339 deaths among the 3073 children (11,129 child-years) followed for up to three years of age. Combination of all West African data for medium and high-titre vaccines yielded a mortality rate of 1.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.63). The excess mortality was statistically significant at the p 0.05 level only when high-titre vaccine was compared to the standard regimen (1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.73). No difference in mortality was found between medium or high-titre recipients and control children who had not yet received any vaccine. The excess mortality in the high-titre groups was restricted to females. There was no interaction between age and vaccine type. As a result of these findings, the World Health Organization reversed its 1989 recommendation for use of high-titre measles vaccine. Urged are community studies of measles-related morbidity and mortality that investigate the gender differential identified in this survey.

 

 

 

Szczepienia a umieralność dzieci
 

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