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Home Masters dr Henryk Rozanski Herbs Types of herbal raw materials and a set of rules for their

Types of herbal raw materials and a set of rules for their

In the case of self-collection of herbs applies unconditionally to collect detailed knowledge of botanical plants. Describes a number of poisonings caused by toxic plants omyłkowym collection. Bury independent gathering of plants belonging to the Umbelliferae family - Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) as belonging to this family of plants are very similar and difficult to distinguish what, and at the same time create a variety of regional and break up into numerous subspecies. These include here both medicinal plants and poisonous, such as mackerel blekot confused with parsley! very similar to chervil - equally poisonous.

No herbs are not allowed to collect from their positions are close to streets, sewers, garbage dumps, factories, farmland on which shall be made or spraying pesticides.

Unacceptable and reprehensible is the plucking of medicinal plants by the roots, if we get only the greens, flowers or fruit. Self-respecting, cultured herbs herbalist collects while always respecting the principles of nature conservation.

Herbs should be collected in dry days, ie when the air is humid and the course is not raining.

Herbs growing in sunny and dry (southern slopes, dry meadows exposed) are stronger in action (they have a higher therapeutic value) than the herbs growing in the dark and damp positions.

Season and time of day are factors affecting the content of bodies active in the plant. The best time of the collection of medicinal plants is late in the morning (at approx. 10 - 11:00), noon (at approx. 12-13) and early afternoon (at approx. 14 - to 16-17:00). The highest concentration of essential oils and glycosides in plant cells takes place in these times of day. In the days sunny, dry and sunny at noon, when the air temperature has risen slightly przywiędnięte plant, which is due to decrease in the level of tissue hydration (turgor reduction - which has an intracellular plasma pressure on the cell walls). Raw herbs then harvested dry quickly and are characterized by high value medicinally. This should be taken into account.

Herbal plants should be done at certain times of the year, and often in specific months of the year (harvest dates are given on the description of each plant), such as spruce and pine needles should be collected in January or February, it is in these months contain much vitamin C (200 mg/100 g) during the summer of ascorbic acid concentration in needles is reduced by half. Herbs "alkaloid" is a must to raise the spring and early summer, because that's when the quantity of alkaloids in vacuoles is a maximum.

Do not collect the herbs contaminated, infested by vermin, yellowed, or other things that do not look healthy.

Herbal raw materials should be collected in baskets or bags made of breathable materials such as canvas. Excellent for this purpose bags are sewn from old curtains. Raw material be laid loosely, do not knead it, it will be brewing.

Herbal raw material may be different parts of plants such as herbs, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, bark, roots, rhizomes and bulbs.

1). Herb (Herb) is a whole-ground part of plants: stems, leaves, bracts, flowers, buds, and often immature fruit. St. John's meet at the beginning or in full bloom, because then it contains the largest number of active bodies. Herb cut down with a sickle, pruning shears, scissors or knife 2-3 fingers above the ground or higher. Do not pluck the weed by hand, because it damages the roots.

2). Leaves (singular. Folium) gain during the formation of flower buds and flowering plants, or before flowering (when the buds are not yet). The leaves of trees and shrubs in the spring gathering. Needles (with the exception of larch trees, whose needles collected in spring) trees (pine, spruce, fir, juniper) we collect in the winter!.

3). Flower (Flos, Floris) and inflorescence (inflorescentia) gather at the beginning of flowering, because then they are rich in active substances osypują not and do not lose their color during drying.Flowers manually collect and treat them very gently.

4). Fruit and seed (Semen et Fructus). After pollination and fertilization, the ovary is converted into a fruit, and found in it the seeds form a seed. From the ovary wall pericarp is formed, whose main part is transformed into parenchyma tissue of ovary wall. Pericarp can be dry (eg jaskrowate, legumes), or juicy (eg, elderberry, blueberry, mountain ash). For therapeutic purposes we will use the whole fruit, that is, the pericarp and seeds (hawthorn, rowan) or just the seeds (such as flax, fenugreek).Fruits or seeds collect in the first phase of maturity. Unable to collect the fruit worm, or covered with mold spots. Collect fruit baskets, and so as not to have upholstery and squashed, because these are not suitable for drying.

5). Bark (Cortex). Cortex should be done in spring or autumn (after the falling leaves). It must be pure (young), smooth and shiny - bark mirror (unless the young bark is naturally dull.) Mirror are covered with bark branches and roots, counting the 2-4 years. Best to obtain it from trees or bushes to cut, or who have been breaking in high winds. Notched her around the hive, and then along and undermined, or if it is not possible - zestrugujemy knife. You can also dry the entire branch (of course, thin), and the whole grind in a meat grinder. If you are under the bark of some insects or mold, bark, such is not suitable for our purposes.

6). Doughnuts (Gemma,-ae), we gather in early spring during the winter, ie before the development of (fully closed) or partly developed (in the first phase - when they're open a minimum, in the second phase - if you can see the color bright green leaves stulone). Some buds are covered with a resinous substances of different colors and different smell or taste buds such as poplar, horse chestnut, pine. Buds cut off with pruning shears. If you are very small and it gathers up all the thin branches on which they are located and in the form of droughts, and then they had.

7). Root (Radix,-ICIS), digs in the autumn or spring, it is in these seasons are at the root of valuable substances in large quantities. Best to dig the roots of American fork.

8). Rhizomes and onions (Rhizoma et bulbus) rhizome is an underground shoot, similar externally to the root or part of the root system. In fact, the rhizome is not a piece of root, but the momentum. It differs from the root of the lack of caps on the growth cone stalk, the presence of foliage reduced the appearance of small brown or colorless squamules, in the corners with leaf buds that give rise to shoots nadziemnym or underground, the buds are formed from stem nodes - adventitious roots. The shape of the rhizome is very heterogeneous. They may be in the form of underground runners with long internodes, as couch grass rhizome, or the opposite - they have the shape of thick, highly abbreviated shoots, which is characterized by iris and rhubarb (Rheum). Rhizomes usually contain a lot of back-up of nutrients, mainly in the form of soluble sugars (couch grass), starch, etc. .. Rhizomes as well as the roots are lifted in the fall or spring.

Onion is a very short shoot underground. Morphology of the onion is very complicated and there is no space in this book to describe her. The first leaf sheath are completely dry and perform protective functions. After them comes a thin, membranous, transparent sheath, which covers the whole onions, the list that follow it are characterized sukulencją, that is - they are fleshy and juicy, containing stocks of soluble carbohydrates and sometimes different glycosides (squill, sea onion), or = phytoncides antibiotics (eg, garlic).
Types of herbal raw materials and a set of rules for their

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