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The history and meaning of the two lines of herbal medicine

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St. Albertus Magnus / 1193-1280 / - Patron biologists

medieval alchemist, philosopher, theologian and herbalist

1. The history and meaning of the two lines of herbal medicine

Herbalism is as old as mankind. Knowledge of herbs gathered from the dawn of human civilization. Since ancient times, man had to cope with various diseases. Drugs for many sufferings sought in the surrounding, extremely rich nature.

Primitive peoples.


Early man during a drug search was guided by instinct and incidental observations, imitated or animals that eat during illness, certain plants that are not, however, their daily diet (eg, monkeys infected with malaria quinquina chew on the bark of which quinine is known, while cattle suffering of the gastrointestinal tract consumes chamomile or yarrow, which are normally omitted.) If the consumption of any plant is to work harm to the human body is avoided when the good-natured - was used. In primitive tribes, which were connected to families and tribes, treatment usually dealt with one person - the leader, and knowledge about herbs was handed down orally from generation to generation.

Antiquity.

The oldest written document containing a description of the medicinal plant origin is the book Pent-Sao originating from ancient China (prior to about 2700 BC). It shows that the Chinese manufactured juices, infusions, decoctions, powders, ointments, wine and do not know, however, herbal syrups. In medicine, about 300 herbs.

Plates are also known to the Sumerians, which shows that these people applied for the treatment of henbane, wormwood, plantain, calendula, butterbur, Polygonatum, garlic, onions, or camomile. Sumerian priests draw up according to their own recipes (which still survived in the form of clay tablets), various mixtures of herbal tinctures and powders. Sumerians their knowledge of herbs, Assyrians and Babylonians passed, you turn to the Egyptians. The Assyrians and Babylonians observed that at different times of day and year have different power plants medicinally. Therefore developed a calendar and a set of rules for the herbs. Also discussed rules for storage and plant cultivation.

A significant development occurred in herbology ancient Egypt, as evidenced by the 1872 found in Ebers papyrus (named after the discoverer), containing about 800 recipes for preparation of various medicines. Egyptian priests manufactured oil extracts from herbs, mazidła, lotions and poultices. Many plant materials and finished herbal medicines brought in from India, Indonesia, Ceylon, China, Arabia and Palestine. Therapeutics course still rested in the hands of clerics who their prescription medications kept the valuable in great secrecy. That caused a lot of valuable lost with the death of their author.

In Greece, only after many years of herbal medicine took care of lay people, naturalists, philosophers, scientists versatile. The most distinguished scholars of herbs were:

Hipocrates from Kos / 460-377, the BC /

- Hippocrates of Kos (460-377 BC) - the greatest physician of antiquity, whose glory reached the East (the Persian king Artaxerxes invited him to her, but Hippocrates did not benefit from this honorable invitation and remained in Greece), left a letter for 53 medical Ionic dialect, in the letter "O sacred disease" Hippocrates rejected the previously prevailing superstition that the cause of epilepsy (epilepsy) is possessed by demons of the patient (as described by the priests) and explains it as a disease of the brain, physiology, based on the Hippocratic doctrine of the four essential juices body: blood, mucus, bile and black bile; disruption of harmony between the four juices in the body was, according to Hippocrates, the source of disease, in his book "Corpus Hippocrateum" describes 455 different plants; motto of Hippocrates and his teachings in the conduct of treatment was: firstly, do no harm, he believed that the rational nutrition and hygiene are the factors preventing disease, noted that the external environment affects the very health and the human psyche (letter Fri "On the air, water and surroundings"); Hippocrates believed that the treatment should be use the whole plant, without any treatment, because it claimed that the drugs found in nature are in the best shape for the body, gave a famous aphorism: "Vita brevis, ars longa, tempus praeceps, experimentum periculosum, Iudicium difficile" (short life, art long transient opportunity, experience dangerous, reasoning difficult.)

Theophrastus / 372-287, the BC /

- Theophrastus (372-287 BC) - a student of Aristotle, the "father of botany ', a versatile scholar, wrote, inter alia, two research thesis:" The study of plants ",,, 0 origin of the plant."

- Dioskorydes (I century AD) - the Greek physician of Cilicia, the author of five books Fri "The medical matter" he described about 600 species of plants, in the work Fri "The things medicinal," he described a lot of vegetable and mineral.

In Greece, there were the so-called rhizotomowie ie persons whose professional activity is digging up roots. Dug roots subjected drying, grinding, and then sold them. Draw up a herbal mixture. A popular collector roots, the creator of many herbal mixtures was Krateuas - author of the pharmaceutical and prospector antidote to any kind of poison.

Dioscorides / n.e. first century /

In ancient Rome, and there was no lack of eminent experts and proponents of herbal medicine and herbal medicine:

· Galenus Claudius (132-201 AD) came from Pergamum, a trained physician and philosopher, has left about 300 written work, such as "Medical Arts" "The fields of medicine," "The bones", "A stirring and action Drugs "," Breakdown of drugs according to the action "had his own pharmacy, where he provided a variety of medications according to your wishes (honey herbal tinctures, powders, patches, pills, extracts vinegar, oil and water, wine), he described some 450 medicinal plants, steel the creator of the so-called galenic pharmacy, which deals with obtaining and testing of raw milk with vegetable, mineral and animal products; Hipokratesowi began objecting to undergo modified in plants, because he believed that the effect depends on its form, he tried to process the raw vegetable in a rational and optimal designing or just making the refinement of techniques of medicines; cared about quality and purity of their medications, it also demanded from other physicians.

Caius Plinius Secundus · also called Maior (1923-1979 onwards) has described more than 1,000 plants, but was killed during the explosion of Vesuvius, when he ran to the village threatened campaign to familiarize yourself with the effects of natural phenomena and to help the victims.

· Orybazjusz (Oribasios of Pergamum lived in the fourth century AD) - the court physician of Emperor Julian in Gaul, made an extract from the writings of Galen, has also developed the work of other physicians creating a "medical reports" in 70 books in a methodical system, wrote a work Fri "Pet Medication" in four books.

Galenus Claudius / 132-201 on n.e. /

The Middle Ages.

After the fall of Western Empire and the conquest of Rome by the Germanic tribes (in 476) is manifested in the collapse of civilization, science and culture. Of course, this reflected negatively on a herbal medicine. Only in the sixth century has seen the re-development of the natural sciences, and including phytotherapy. Large role in the development of medical science played Arabs, who introduced new forms of drugs (spirits, syrups, concentrated, ulepki), spread the distillation process, described by about 1800 of medicines, developed the principle crops in southern Europe, described the properties of spices, which are then spread in many countries, the first conducted experiments with the effects of drugs on animals, created the first pharmacy in Baghdad, which managed the pharmacists, not physicians, separated pharmacy from medicine, surgery and developed a chemistry. In the production of drugs began to use natural dyes and aromatic (camphor, cloves, cinnamon, ginger, vanilla, muszkatołowiec), and it is all because they attached great importance to the aesthetic appearance of the drug, its taste and smell. Great scholars in Saudi were: Abu Ali Ibn Sina (980-1037 AD), Geber and Rhazes Abulcasem.

Abu Ali Ibn Sina (Avicenna) / 980-137 /

Arabs gather and store the achievements of medicine (herbal medicine), Greek and Roman, thanks to them this knowledge survived. In the twelfth century Arab culture influence was so great that it conquered European thought. The works of Arab scholars who wrote on its own research and the achievements of Greek and Roman scholars were translated into Latin. Great was the translator of works by Constantine the African nature.Constantine the African was a Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino, where he founded a school providing medical knowledge was also a teacher at the School of Salerno. The main centers of Arab translators writings existed in Toledo, Valencia, Seville and Cordoba. Along with Arabic references were brought to Europe scholastic interpretation. It inhibited only in Europe, the emerging science for a long period of time, limiting the interpretation of the writings of Hippocrates, Galen, Aristotle and others.

In the XI century Benedictine monks founded the aforementioned natural and medical school in Salerno, which came from well-known botanist-physician Benedictine Floridus Macer (Odo von Meung).

St. Hildegard / 1098-1179 /

In 1150, St. Hildegard - abbess of the convent to work Ruppertsberg released Fri "Physica," in which he describes 250 species of plants, including their medical and nutritional value.

In 1240 a popular r the alchemist, a quack, a Dominican from Schwaben St. Albertus Magnus seems to work Fri "De virtutibus herbarum, et animalium lapidum ...", which describes about 250 herbs.

The Middle Ages, however, especially alchemy. By the mid eighteenth century, scholars have sought to turn common metals (eg mercury) into gold using the mythical philosopher's stone, would cure all diseases and prolong life, and through a comprehensive youth elixir. Alchemy came to Europe from Arabia and India. Alchemists have mastered the simple method of isolating and purifying the substance (by distillation, extraction, dissolution, precipitation, filtration and crystallization), have discovered a number of salts, which were later introduced into medical practice, isolated the arsenic, antimony, bismuth and phosphorus. In addition, improved the distillation apparatus, receivers, flasks, coolers, and other laboratory equipment.

The treatment dealt with the clergy (the Dominicans, Cistercians, Carmelites, Benedictines), various kinds of witch doctors, sorcerers l witch. Monastery gardens were created in which the herbs were grown, and a pharmacy run by monastic clergy, who drew up drugs of natural origin, mainly vegetable according to secret recipes, and then traded them and to heal the sick.

Scholars and instead deal with pioneering research and discoveries have written only "grubaśne" trial and comments to individual works of ancient sages, such as Dioskorydesa, Hippocrates, Galen. Most of the new publications were playing the old ones.

The importance of travel and took numerous discoveries of new continents. With the known number of new medicinal plants, such as quinquina, kokainowiec, szafranowiec, Jalapa (wilec laxative).

For the Polish knowledge about herbs brought from Western Europe nun. Initially, herbal books were written in Latin, and later in Polish. Major achievements in the field of herbal medicine in medieval Poland put John Stanko (1450-1494) - physician, professor of the Cracow Academy, author of "Antibolomenum" - a work containing a description of 433 plant species of national l 60 alien species.

Rebirth.

Age of Renaissance is a breakthrough in relation to the medieval period in science, art and culture, times the momentum, boldness, courage and conviction in every respect.Dominated by interest in temporal life, the desire to scientific knowledge of reality. However, in this particular era, we can see the beginnings of the fall of herbal medicines based on the galenic. At the same time see a flourishing jatrochemii, that is the direction in medicine and chemistry, emphasizing its major goal to invent, and preparation of drugs and to explain the processes in the human body.

Paracelsus / 1493-1547 /

Great pioneer and promoter of treatment chemicals was a Swiss physician, alchemist, T. Paracelsus (1493-1547). He believed that to treat a sick body does not need the whole plant, because it treats the entire plant, but some body chemical contained in it, it is the body chemistry of the plant must wyosobnić and administered to the patient. According to Paracelsus, to heal the sick body for it to enter the compounds, which offset the upset chemical equilibrium system (the missing substances), the main function in the processes of the body perform mercury, sulfur and salt. Worked on the already mentioned the philosopher's stone and the silver bullet (he believed in their existence). According to Paracelsus directs a human body element in life, the astral body - archeusz, which is based in the stomach and brain. He claimed that in every man stuck innate characteristics - Entia. For this reason he was against the teachings of a well established (proclaimed by the ancient scholars such as Hippocrates, Galen, Aristotle), was in constant conflict with the scientific community, moreover, have frequently changed their place of residence. He preached the views rewolucjonizującego innovation (for example, called for improved working conditions and safety of workers), but also believed in superstitions and prejudices, was even better their creator, for example, to treat wounds in which the wine used a pre-cooked worms, and ointment, which was ground lard drawn from fat gallows, for the treatment of diseases manifested by patches applied plants spotted).

Because of views and also herbal medicine Paracelsus was divided in two different directions:

1). Herbalism galenic, which has developed gradually from the time primitive and ending with the Middle Ages, because during the Renaissance begins its slow decline with periodic, but short-term increases in importance. It is based on the galenic drugs.To clarify reports that the drug is a product galenowy drawn from different parts of plants according to the rule, which contains the active compounds with a specific character of the pharmacological action (which is what many people think, and in accordance with the thesis of Paracelsus is the most important in the plant, of course, this view is paracelsusowy very wrong, but more on that later), and in addition to roughage, or as it is wrong to determine - the body less important, unnecessary, disturbing.To drugs so galenic include among others: powders, juices, syrups, alkoholatury, alkoholomiody, honey herbal water extracts, vinegar, glycerol, ether, oils, ointments, mazidła, poultices).

2). Herbalism paracelsusowe beginning in the Renaissance period in the days of Paracelsus (who of course was its creator), and continued to this day. It is based on modern medicines that contain chemicals extracted from plants with a specific pharmacological effect. Before that, the direction of treatment faces huge perspective, which of course can not be said about herbalism galenowym, and why it is so we'll see in a moment.Major contributions in the field of herbalism and phytotherapy in Poland era Deferrals put:

- Martin with the official (1500-1573) - physician, philosopher, a canon of Sandomierz, founder of the botanical garden in Sandomierz, author of the first textbook of pharmacognosy Fri"Polish Heraldry", he served as dean of the University of Krakow.

- Simon Syreński or SIRENIUS (1541-1611) - botanist, physician, professor and dean of the University of Cracow, the author of a very long work (consisting of 1540 stronnic) with herbs Fri "Herbarium" in which he described 765 different plants and offered to draw up rules and other herbal blends herbal medicines.

SIRENIUS / 1541-1611 /

- Stefan Falimierz - botanist, physician and translator of numerous works into Polish Foreign Affairs, creator of the Polish terminology requirements.

Among the major foreign herbalists and fitoterapeutów are: Th.Zwinger, P. Mathiolusa, M. Lobeliusa, A. Lonicerusa, brothers Jan and Casper Bauhinów, J. Camerariusa, K. Gesner, V. Cordusa, N. Monardes and C. Clusius.

Conrad Gesner / 1516 - 1565 / - doctor

It should be strongly emphasized - the entire plant cures, because it contains a number of different, specific chemicals in different relationships some of which have a stronger, others weaker pharmacological effect.

Plant extracts such galenic drugs, honey, powders and mixes contain, apart from running most of the drug substance (main) and ballast body which usually include: tłuszczowce, białkowce, cukrowce, mineral salts, organic and inorganic acids, active enzymes, colorants, provitamin, vitamin , gums, mucilages, dextrin, and sometimes pectin, saponins and some tannins.These chemicals are present in plant tissues in natural units, and at the same time they are characterized by a very good bioavailability (bioavailability). These seemingly unimportant body also affect therapeutic, and sometimes they are simply indispensable, and the wrong thing to do is remove them.Generally speaking, they work on strengthening the body, regulating, toning, nourishing, enhance well-being and fitness, speed up recovery and to recover and what is important - prevent disease. Thus, traditional herbal medicines are incomparably more valuable than synthetic drugs or substances containing purified originally derived from plants. In addition, some body active complement, enhance, protect or prolong the action of others. An example of this phenomenon is the effect of vitamin C contained in all plants in the presence of flavonoids.Flavonoids extend and reinforce the action of ascorbic acid or vitamin. C, and they are a protective factor for them (inhibit the ascorbate oxidase to prevent oxidation is wit. C). Vitamin C contained in the plants due to flavonoids work 5-6 times more potent than synthetic vitamin C.

Another example would be a joint action of glycosides, saponins and flavonoids contained in the valley, or digitalis: saponin glycosides facilitate absorption from the gut into the blood, flavonoids, and saponins increase the salt tolerance of the organism to glycosides, make them work more effectively and positively to the heart muscle Compared with the operation of pure glycosides wyosobnionych x plants from a variety of substances or artificially reconstituted.

Today, however, herbalism galenical has very little significance in medicine, and few doctors official it is used, and that is because the drugs used in the galenic are troublesome in the preparation and use. It uses herbs often do not appear in pharmacopoeias, as unproven and unexplored action, and finally the herbs that you are often looking to collect from their natural state, because it does not lead to an official of their sale in pharmacies and herbal shops. Many drugs have also galenic prepare yourself according to unofficial law and thus drugs that the industry did not go on to produce. It is used in medicine, in addition to synthetic drugs and modern medicines of plant origin which include purified chemicals isolated from plants, for example, glycosides, alkaloids. The active substances extracted from plants are introduced into the body in different ways and in different form, such as drażetkach, in tablets, capsules, injections. Such dosage forms are manufactured by the pharmaceutical industry with sophisticated technology. The substances isolated from plants are often incorporated in the complex next to the synthetic drug substances, such as Isochinie (currently not produced) we quinine (15 mg) and Coffein (30 mg), which are substances of plant origin and salicylamidum (300 mg), which is of synthetic origin, in Isalginie we aminofenazon and phenobarbital of synthetic and natural papaverine. Modern drugs of plant origin as well as synthetic drugs are convenient to use, have a permanent, unchanging and certain chemical composition, are readily available and can accurately determine their dosage. No wonder that they just are of utmost importance in medicine and is not willing to reach for doctors and patients.

Repayment of scientists toward the world of plants is due to its finished searching for treating diseases of the substance to which a man can not cope, to which he is powerless, and in many cases sentenced to death. Different plant materials, they undergo a thorough chemical analysis, but again I repeat - not a means to make them simple galenic drugs, which is a basis for the development of this course of treatment (based on medykamentach whose production technology was developed long ago by ancient physicians ), but in order to found wyosobnić substances, clean up, fix their chemical formula and if it is possible to artificially reproduce, and only in this form after numerous tests of put into therapeutics. Of course, searching for drugs in plants lead to determine and understand the chemical composition of plants, and thus explain their operation healing. It should be noted, however, that these studies have in many cases there are quite a multilateral, are too refined and neglect the many opportunities that could be used by the cosmetics galenical. In addition, withdrawals from the pharmacopoeia of the world at a time of simple galenic drug-plant and herbal materials, which have been used for many years, is not conducive to the development galenic herbology. Manufacturers explain this adverse phenomenon of decline in demand for these measures, which in many cases is not true. I think the simple galenic drugs made from plants and animal tissues and medicinal plants are being replaced by modern, comfortable forms of drugs containing substances isolated from plants, which the producers are more and more as opposed to the cumbersome and outmoded herbal medicines. In the twenty-first century, there is fierce competition between the three lines of treatment: galenowym herbology, phytotherapy paracelsusową a direction based on synthetic drugs. Of course, the last two lines of treatment win and win in competition with herbalism galenowym. Finally, too many opponents of the treatment simple herbal medicines, which may be made at home, and worse opponents of medical environments makes the prospects for the development galenic herbology.

Paul Ehrlich / 1854-1915 / creator of the bases of chemotherapy

Age of the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Proponents of the theory of Paracelsus began research on plants, in order to extract the root of them, in their opinion the most important active ingredient. In the seventeenth and eighteenth and nineteenth century developed methods to extract the active compounds of medicinal plants, such as alkaloids.Major achievements in this field put the Russian scientist - Oriechow. The era of "wyodrębniaczy. In 1803 Sartürmer has identified the opium alkaloid - morphine, in 1817, Pelletier and Magedie obtained from the root of ipecacuanha alkaloid - physostigmine, in 1818 and said Caventou Pelletier isolated the alkaloid kulczyby - strychnine, in 1820, Runge wyosobnił coffeealkaloid - caffeine, in the same year were obtained from the cinchona quinine, in 1826, found in cloves Bonastre eugenol, a component of many dental formulations (eg, Perl-Pack, Endometazon, Rocles) in 1831 received the Wiggers buławinkiRed alkaloid - ergotamine, then received ergot derivatives: bromocriptine and lysergic acid diethylamide (drug) in 1841 Nativell isolated from medical knicynę skyscraper, which you think may be a means of treating leukemia (exhibits antileukemic activity) in 1842 Weiss has identified the flavonoid-rutoside routine, and Stein 1853 y isolated the same substance with perełkowca Japanese - both of these plants are used to produce routine and quercetin, which are sold as tablets, capsules, injectable liquids, gels and dragees; in 1840 The Guitteau isolated from ordinary karczochu cynarynę action żółciotwórczym, żółciopędnym, protection of liver parenchyma, antibacterial, lowers blood cholesterol and detoxification - a part of many preparations, such as Cynarein, Plemocil, Listrocol, in 1859, Neumann received the kokainowca cocaine, in 1864, Jobson and Hesse received the alkaloid physostigmine bobotrutki kalabarskiej, which is used topically in glaucoma, in 1872, Verne and Bourgoin from the plant - Peumus boldus boldynę obtained alkaloid, which acts strongly cholagogic, diuretic, increases excretion of urate and uric acid - in many countries is used to treat gout, urolithiasis, gout, inflammation of the kidneys, bladder and prostate, and numerous diseases of the liver and gallbladder, in 1861, Lukomski isolated from Oleandra oleandrynę, which mistakenly described as an alkaloid, in 1883 Schmiedeberg was proved that oleandryna is a glycoside, in 1887, Nagai R wyosobnił of przęśli dwukłosowej alkaloid - ephedra.

During the playback of artificial plant substances were built some new relationships, including those which do not occur in nature.

In the nineteenth century, the great development of the chemistry and microbiology became the basis for the emergence of a new direction of treatment - chemotherapy is the treatment of diseases caused by biological agents using chemicals. Paul Ehrlich made a synthesis salwarsanu - drug against syphilis. In 1874, the artificially prepared salicylic acid, which has hitherto been derived from the bark of willow, poplar or meadowsweet flower (used for thick or dry extracts of these plants, or strong decoctions) in 1884 received antipyrin; in 1886 salol and, in 1887, fenacytynę.

Ivan Pavlov (middle images, with a gray beard) / 1849-1936 /

In the nineteenth century, a prominent Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov described the mechanism of action goryczek to the digestive system, and Sawicz explained the mechanism of action of camphor on the heart. These are significant achievements in the field of pharmacology.

The twentieth century has seen the further development of farmakochemii. In 1934 G. Domagk discovered the antibacterial effects of sulfonamidowego - prontosilu. From that time began to build with great enthusiasm and advertising placed on the treatment getting more resources sulphanilic acid derivatives. It was believed that sulfonamides create a new era of therapeutics that have been based on plant medicines, basic chemicals and organotherapii. As a result, many high-profile synthesis arose diuretics, antihypertensives, analgesics, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and a large number of others. Drugs artificially drove received a large number of herbs and herbal preparations with lekospisów around the world. Gro doctors even predicted the total collapse of herbal medicine. In 1941 H.W. Florey and E.B.Chain introduced to the treatment of penicillin, which is obtained from the fungus. It was later discovered and began to use other natural antibiotics such as streptomycin (discovered in 1943 by Waksman Selmani) chloromycetynę (chloramphenicol), aureomycin (chlortetracycline). Also began research on the antibiotics produced by higher plants - fitoncydami. In studies fitoncydami deserve the Soviet scholars - Tokin and the Nile.Some, such as phytoncides garlic and onions are used in medicine today. All this led the researchers again turned their attention to plants. The world of plants proved to be a valuable source of antibiotic substances, as well as anticancer kardiotonicznych, spazmolitycznych and many others.

Selman Abraham Waksman / 1888-1973 /, discoverer of streptomycin

At the same time, it turned out that only after years of use, you can assess the benefits and harm that is caused by the medication. Many synthetic drugs, which were introduced with great hope, advertising and enthusiasm proved to be agents of low therapeutic value and physiological ba number of drugs have proved toxic substances (teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, białaczkotwórczymi etc.) to the fragile human body. Examples are the already mentioned sulfonamides. Most sulfonamides ever used and currently used produce undesirable and harmful effects of side-effects, and worse still they occur frequently. The most dangerous action of sulfonamides is undoubtedly a team Stavensa-Johnson syndrome, which can lead to death (in 25% of cases). In addition, they often cause allergic reactions emerging after 10 days of treatment, complications, and renal disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, sulfonamides withdraws not only because they are toxic but also because it shows more and more bacteria resistant to them, thus becoming less effective chemotherapeutic agents. "In the form of ointments, powders and solutions are currently sulphonamides rarely used, and their effectiveness is negligible, and often skin allergic reactions (W. Rewerski).

Take for example aminofenazon - a synthetic compound, which made a great career in medicine for at least 30 years. This was (and in some countries still is) the main component of the vast quantities of compound analgesics in the world (part Amidochinu - currently not produced, Pyramidonu, Gardanu, Pabialginy, Veramidu, Cofedonu - now withdrawn, et al.). Meanwhile, it turned out that this is a compound (a derivative fenylopirazolonu), extremely toxic, because it causes damage to bone marrow (and when there is hypersensitivity after small doses of the drug, testing after a single ingestion!) Especially in children and is in addition only after 10-14 days after taking the drug. It turned out that aminofenazon hinders the body's excretion of many drugs, ions, Na and water (obrzęki!). When the abuse (many people are taking painkillers unreasonable (from the Latin rationalis means rational, reasonable), and worse with aminofenazonem, see the composition of the medicines you are taking!) Aminofenazonu observed in liver and renal papillary necrosis. This substance in many countries (eg Switzerland, Austria, Germany) was withdrawn from use and replaced by propyfenazon (phenazone derivative), which is less harmful to man (?). As we already know that is phenazone antipyrin was introduced into medical practice in the nineteenth century, when it was considered a revelation, but it turned out that the drug is already toxic at therapeutic doses, causes the release of many people of breath, breathlessness, convulsions, and even collapse . With abuse of antipyrine observed interstitial nephritis with renal papillary necrosis. Description of painkillers, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic can be accessed at: http://www2.pwsz.krosno.pl/ ~ henroz/analgeticum2002.htm

There are many such examples (of many synthetic drugs) that you would need to devote much space to them, and this book is faced with a different purpose, namely to provide knowledge about herbs that are safe drugs (effective) for the people. Herbs (and drugs galenical of them cooked) are a source not only medicines, but also vitamins, minerals, amino acids, flavonoids, pectin, carbohydrates, lipids and many other compounds that the human body needs to function normally.

John Muszynski / 1884-1957 /

The most eminent Polish researchers of medicinal plants in the nineteenth and twentieth century include:

· Julian Trapp (1315-1908) - M. Pharmacy in St. Petersburg, prof. zw. pharmacy and pharmacognosy, dr.h.c. University of Konigsberg, author of some 20 works from the pharmacy and pharmacognosy, wrote the second Polish textbook "Pharmacognosy" (1869).

Stanisław Biernacki (1875-1931) - prof. pharmacognosy at the University of Poznan; farmakognostycznych author of numerous works, such as "Plant Cardiac drugs" (1927).

· Jan Bieganski (1863-1939), MSc in pharmacy, the author of about 240 publications in phytotherapy and herbalism, for example, medical plants and their cultivation (1894), Herbs Pharmacy (1904), Growing medical (1912), our medical herbs (1924 ), herbalism. Our herbs and treatment of the mute (1931), Herbalist, a handbook for collecting medicinal herbs (1932).Extremely active promoter of herbal medicine in Poland before the war and the interwar period.

· John Muszynski (1884-1857) - Master of pharmacy in Tartu, ibid inspector Botanical Garden, prof. Associate. (1923), prof.zw. (1937) Vilnius University, where he also Head of the Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plant Cultivation, director of the Department of Pharmacy, University of Vilnius, the initiator and organizer of the Faculty of Pharmacy at the University of Lodz, prof. Chair of Pharmacognosy, Medical University of Lodz, founder of the Botanical Garden in Lodz and the author of about 300 publications in botany, pharmacognosy, plant cultivation, herbalism and phytotherapy, for example, "Pharmacognosy" (1957), "Cultivation of medicinal plants" (1946), "Phytotherapy and herbal medicines "(1958); wyosobnił alkaloid from Lycopodium selaginę selago and glycoside rutin from buckwheat. An outstanding organizer and proponent of herbal medicine and herbal medicine in Poland.

· Albert Strażewicz (1889-1350) - the Garden of Medicinal Plant Supervisor Univ. Vilnius, professor of chemistry, toxicology, cultivation of medicinal plants, prof. Chair of Pharmacognosy, Univ. Poznanski, organizer and first director of the National Research Institute of Medicinal Plant Resources in Poznan, the author of some 85 works and articles of pharmacognosy and medicinal crops, such as "Our medical plants" (1925), "Plant Breeding medical" (1925). Brought to life the Polish Society for the Promotion of Production of Medicinal Plants (1927).

· Deryng James (1836-1980) - Inspector Garden Farmakognostycznego Univ. Warsaw, a professor of medicinal plant cultivation, the author of about 150 scientific publications, such as "Atlas of powdered plant materials" (1961), has developed a patent for "Apparatus for the determination of essential oils in plants.

· Mowszowicz James (1901-1983) - author of over 700 scientific and popular textbooks (eg, "On some plants poisonous" (1957), "Our most important poisonous plants" (1953), "Outline of plant systematics" (1974), "common vascular plants Polish" (1974), "Plants poisonous or harmful to humans in terms of their medicinal properties" (1952), "Guide for the determination of domestic poisonous plants and harmful" (1932), an eminent expert on medicinal plants and poisonous, prof. dr hab. botany, studied at the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Univ. Vilna, where he specialized in the field of plant systematics and geography, flora examined the provinces of Lodz, Piotrków, Sieradz and Skierniewice. After the war, the organizers of the Department of Biology at the University of Lodz.

· Flora Kudrzycka-Biełoszabska (1903-1975) - author of some 50 works farmakognostycznych, such as "oil and azulene content in Achillea millefolium (1951), a researcher koniiny (New mikrochemiczna koniinę response").

· Adam Michaluk (1913-1964) - author of about 35 experimental works, such as research materials garbnikowymi "initiator and promoter studies azulenami and flavonoids, has developed a species of the genus Hypericum.

James Mowszowicz / 1901-1983 / eminent Polish botanist and herbalist propagator

In addition, the large contribution of the study of medicinal plants in the nineteenth and twentieth century in Poland put Witold Poprzęcki, Boleslaw Broda, Stanislaw Kolmünzer, Wojciech Roeske, Antonina Rumińska, Lutoslawski Skrzypczak, Stanislaw Büchner.

Continued herbs: http://www.rozanski.ch
The history and meaning of the two lines of herbal medicine
 

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