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Elderberry, black elder - Sambucus nigra (L.)

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Elderberry, black elder - Sambucus nigra (L.)

Family - Caprifoliaceae

Botanical description

Elder, elderberry, black elder, European elder, European elderberry and European black elderberry Shrub or tree grows up to 6 m in height ; Korovin gray , cracked , young green twigs , leaves usually 5 - flap ( composed feathery ), leaves lanceolate, oblong, toothed or serrated banks , pointed , toothed bracts , ovate , pointed , quickly flaking , flowers form inflorescence baldachokształtny , large , petals crown white, yellowish or pinkish , 5 stamens , pistil 1, ovary 3- kbmorowa ; fruit - pestczak , ellipsoidal , spherical , black, shiny .


It blooms from June to July. It grows in thickets , groves , orchards , forests , the fields and rivers. Common throughout the country. The plant has a distinctive smell.

Raw

Cannabis herb are : leaf, inflorescence , bark and fruit - Folium , Inflorescentia , Cortex et Fructus Sambuci nigrae . Leaves harvested from May to June. Pointless to separate flowers from stalks on which they are embedded. All of which are umbels. The bark may be obtained throughout the year. Fruits should be dried at a temperature of about 60-80 ° C , while other raw materials at 20-40 ° C.

Flos et Fructus Sambuci - for free sale in pharmacies and herbal shops (pack of 20, 25 and 50 g FP I, II , III , IV et V) . Manufacturers : Watermelon , Herb Lux, Herbapol , Herb Salus Victus Herb .

The chemical composition

Fruits are glycoside - sambunigrynę acids ( quinic , chlorogenic , apple - 1.18% , shikimic ) , carbohydrates - about 6 % , vitamin B , vitamin . C, H , carotene , salts - about 1% pectin - 3.5 % , tannins - about 6 % , anthocyanins ( cyanidin 3- glucoside , 3 - sambubiozyd cyanine 3- sambubiozydo -5- glucoside, cyanidin ) . The fruit is about 60-100 mg of vitamin C per 100 g

The leaves have a considerable amount of wit . C , for about 200-300 mg per 100 g, in addition carotene - 0,014 mg , aldehyde glikogenowy and hexane , essential oil , sambunigrynę - about 0.11 % alkaloids ( sambucyną , chryzanteminę ) , tannins , locks , acids, salts . Flowers contain an essential oil - about 0.3% , flavonoids ( quercetin , rutin , kaempferol ) , acids ( coffee, butyric acid , p- coumaric , valerian , apple, chlorogenic , ferulic acid ) , tannins , called . amine ( amylamine , ethylamine , isobutylamine , choline ) , locks , sambunigrynę ( glycoside cyjanhydrynowy ) , alkaloids (?) , beta - amyrynę , alpha- amyrynę , lupeol , cycloartenol , lipidowce , various esters , salts , vitamins (vitamin C - 80-90 mg/100 g ) , glucose , saponins , et al.

Elderberry bark is rich in tannins , saponins , resins, choline, sytosterol , acids , salts, essential oils , glycosides and alkaloids , its composition requires examination .

action

Flower: expectorant , anti-inflammatory , antiseptic , przeciwropne , diaphoretic , detoxifying , anti -inflammatory, diuretic , anti-swelling , antispasmodic, warming , sedatives, hypnotics ( for the children) , sealing and strengthening blood vessels, anti-atherosclerotic , general strengthening , extending the action of vitamin C , regulating metabolism.

Fruit: regulating bowel movements and slightly laxative , strengthening the general diaphoretic , antipyretic , detoxifying the body , diuretic , analgesic (for nerve and mięśniobóli ) , cholagogue , antispasmodic .

Leaf: slightly laxative , antitussive , expectorant , coating ( protecting ) , Bile , stimulating the secretion of saliva and gastric juice , and appetite , and general strengthening blood vessels, diuretics , decongestants , anti-rheumatic , " cleaning the blood " of harmful substances that regulate metabolism and disinfectants .

Bark : strong diuretics , decongestants , antiarthritics strongly antipyretic , diaphoretic and detoxifying , cholagogue , anti-rheumatic , accelerate metabolism, astringent , antiseptic , anticalculus ( urinary tract ) .

indications:

Flower: colds , flu, measles and other infectious diseases , fever , cough, cold, inflammation of the throat, nasal sinus disease, allergic rhinitis, respiratory , gastroenteritis , tonsillitis , rupture of blood vessels ( purpura ) , atherosclerosis , impaired digestive poisoning , skin diseases , convalescence , metabolic disorders . Externally ( also used orally ) : inflammation of the eye , the conjunctiva and eyelids , fatigue , swelling and watery eyes , cracking vessels in the eye , purulent eye , inflammation of the skin and genital discharge, abscesses , wounds, eczema , ulcers .

Fruit: constipation , states recuperative , fever, colds , infectious diseases , cough , pain in the nervous system, bronchitis and laryngitis, oliguria , poisoning , liver and gallbladder ( adjunctive therapy ! ) , Allergic diseases .

Leaf: constipation, metabolic disorders , gallstones and urinary , biliary stasis after cholecystectomy , coughs, colds , skin diseases and infectious diseases , gastritis , heartburn, ulcers , cracking and permeability of blood vessels , allergic diseases , rheumatism , gout , poisoning , bark edema , urolithiasis , nephritis , urinary bladder , oliguria , hematuria , proteinuria , pyuria , obesity , fever , poisoning , skin diseases , infectious and przeziębieniowe , rheumatism , gout , bile stasis .

Contraindications : nausea and vomiting.

The formulations , dosage , use :

decoction ( bark, fruit! ) - 100-150 ml ( bark ) - 150-200 ml ( fruit ) 2-3 times the plot ( in the heat - 4-6 times a plot of 100 ml), fruit cook for no more as five minutes , and the resulting decoction recommend sweeten with honey , bark cook 10-15 minutes , set aside and keep covered 30 minutes and then filtered.

- Herbal tea ( leaves and flowers) - 100-150 ml 2-3 times the plot , in acute diseases - 150-200 ml 3-4 times the plot , floral brew can sweeten with honey , also used as a gargle and compresses to the skin and eyes (10 minutes changed every five minutes ) ;

- Juice ( fruit ) - 50 ml 3-4 times the plot ;

- Sirupus Sambuci nigri ( with fresh flowers ) - 2 tbsp 3-4 times the plot ;

- Mel Sambuci nigri of pollen : pollen collected from fresh flowers mixed with honey ( 1 teaspoon of pollen on two tablespoons of natural honey ) and take 3-4 times the plot for cough , infectious diseases, przeziębieniowych and the weakened;

- Tincture Sambuci nigri ( leaf, flower , bark ) to pędzlowań and washes diseased sites ( wounds, burns , ulcers , etc.

Notes ! Fresh fruits may not be eating . They are suitable for human consumption only after boiling . If the fruit jellies prepared using , compotes, jellies , jams, wine is to be separated from their seeds ( rubbing through a sieve , straining , etc.). Seeds of the fruits they can not get into our stomachs , because there under the influence of certain enzymes emit harmful hydrocyanic acid . Sam juice and pulp of the fruit is very valuable and quite harmless (safe ) for both young children and older people . Safe are the fruit extracts ( water , acetic , alcoholic ) " boiled " , as high temperature breaks down harmful substances . Extracts of elder flowers can be successfully administered to infants. Lilac leaves and bark can be used to treat children who have completed one year (12 mth. Living ) .

Elderberry, black elder - Sambucus nigra (L.)
 

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