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Characters of herbal medicines and methods of preparation

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On the basis of what is written in this guide, anyone can prepare yourself with a variety of herbs galenic drugs. There are many forms galenic drugs used in phytotherapy. Some of them are unstable (water extracts) and must be used within 24 hours, while others are permanent and can be stored for many years (tinctures, extracts glycerol, wine).

1). Infusion (infusum, s) is a water extract of crushed raw herb.Preparation of infusion is to extract from the plant material bodies active. The infusion is used as medicine for external cavity (ad usum externum) and for internal use (ad usum internum). Infusions made from materials capable of being easily extracted with water, as leaves, flowers, small seeds, herbs, or from materials containing sensitive to body heat. Well particulate material, usually in quantities of 1-2 tablespoons pour boiling water, usually in quantities of 200-250 ml, allowed to stand for 20 minutes and then filtering through cotton wool, gauze, or lignin. The vessel in which parzymy herbs should always be covered. Drug infusions are unstable and quickly warm zakisają (mętnieją and have an unpleasant taste and smell). It is therefore necessary to prepare the quantity of tea that will be consumed within 24 hours, and during the summer, when there is a high temperature - within 12 hours. The infusion can also be stored in the refrigerator for no longer than 3 days.


2). Decoction (Decoctum,-i) is made out of vegetable extract reasonably difficult, as the bark, roots, rhizomes, thick seeds, bulbs, tubers, raw silica. Crushed raw material are overlaid with hot or cold water, put on the fire (unless someone has reszo electric) and cook it long enough, which depends on the type of material and indications. Cooking usually takes from 5 to 40 minutes. Decoction Then leave it for 20-30 minutes, covered, and then filtering through cotton wool, gauze, or lignin. You can not prepare in advance brew, because it zakisa after 12-24 hours, but it can be stored in the refrigerator for 3 days.

3). Macerate (Maceratio,-Onis) is also an aqueous extract made from plant materials containing medicinal ingredients, but ingredients sensitive to high temperatures. Crushed raw material are overlaid with a water temperature of 20-22o C and leave covered for 8-12 hours, then decanted l drink. Macerata can be stored in the refrigerator for 3 days.

Water extracts should be prepared in glass vessels or earthenware, or enameled cookware in which devote to this purpose. Do not brew, or maceratów odwarów drawn in pots of copper, aluminum, nickel, or those that have damaged the enamel!.

Decoction, infusion and also macerate prepared from fresh shredded plant materials. To the water passing among other organic and inorganic acids, water soluble vitamins (group B, C, P, Q), salts, alkaloids, tannins, pectins, mucilages, amino acids, glycosides, in part, some dyes and enzymes. The mixture of water with ethyl alcohol has a greater ability than the individual components for extracting taken separately, are therefore very valuable hydro-alcoholic extracts.

To get strong in action and a slightly thickened aqueous extract it must be subjected to evaporation by boiling in a flat and wide bowl; extract during cooking stir vigorously. Strong aqueous extracts are administered in correspondingly smaller patient dose.

4). Tincture (tincture,-ae) is a liquid alcohol extract made from a dry (!) Shredded plant material. They shall be made generally in respect of: 1 part of raw material into 5 parts of solvent in two ways (methods):

a). maceration method;

b). percolation method, which I will not describe because you have to have a camera called a percolator.

Maceration method lies in the fact that the shredded plant materials are overlaid with a defined amount of 30-70% alcohol (this may be a simple pure vodka), close tightly and leave it for 14-21 days. Then, the extract liquor filtering through cotton wool, or lignin, sink into dark glass bottles with tight and you need closure, then we denote the label (the name in Latin, Polish, date of manufacture and, if indications and dosage). Before taking any tincture is diluted (unless it is a low-interest) of boiled water at room temperature or with milk and honey. Liqueurs will also be used externally. They are very convenient and valuable to use herbal medicines.

5). Herb wine (Vinum,-and medicate) is a very old drugs galenical.In this case, the solvent is a wine to undergo a medical body. Herbal Wine can be made in two ways:

- Flooding of plant material and the finished wine to 14 to 30-day maceration in a dark place, then filtration;

- Raw sugar water pour in gąsiorku, add yeast and subjected to fermentation, then decant the supernatant wine, pour into a dark glass bottle and stopper, and store in a dark place and of course in cool.

6). Alkoholatura stabilized (Alkoholaturee stabilisatae) or intrakt (Intractum) is an alcoholic extract obtained from fresh plant materials. Ground plant fresh weight pour alcohol at a temperature of 80o C, macerate for 14 days, filter. Boiling alcohol inactivates enzymes decomposing body active. This method was developed by French scientists: E. Perrot and A. Goris in 1909 during the preparation of intraktów be very careful. Alcohol must be cooked on an electric food processor is very slow and under cover. Is unacceptable and flame contact with the fumes of alcohol. Intrakty, like liquor, is very valuable, durable and easy to use herbal medicines.

7). Alkoholatura "cold" (Alkoholatura ex herba recent) is the ethanol extract of fresh plant material obtained by maceration. On one part of the raw material accounts for about 5 parts of alcohol at room temperature. Maceration lasts 14 days.

8). Vinegars Treatment (Medicate Acetamide) is acetic extracts of herbs dry and fresh, prepared by maceration lasting 14-21 days in the dark. For one part of the raw material accounts for a part vinegar. Herbal vinegars are normally used as a spice, bath additives and rinses, compresses, less internally after dilution with water in a ratio of 1:2 (one part vinegar herbal + 2 parts boiled water.) Are important in nurturing the skin (cosmetic).

9). Alkoholomiody (Alkoholmel) is a very valuable drugs galenical, which shall be made in a simple way: the desired tincture, or extract intrakt mix with natural honey, usually in a ratio of 1:1, 1:0.5, 1:2. But taking them in pure form often but in small quantities in tea or milk. In general, strengthening work (they are a source of energy compounds), expectorant, antiseptic, stimulates the immune system, detoxicating, regenerate, lipotropowo, regulate the metabolism.

10). Honey Treatment (Mellita) is a drug whose ingredients are honey and the drug substance, in our case the plant material in powder form. On the one tablespoon of honey can be mostly a level teaspoon of powdered herbs; that was the best combination of ingredients I would recommend to add a few drops of alcohol or glycerin (one teaspoon of powder - 15 drops of solvent). Honey is like taking a herbal alkoholomiody, and have similar therapeutic effects. Natural honey contains, inter alia, 70-80% of sugars (glucose, fructose), enzymes imobilizowane (glikoamylaza, inwerteza), mineral salts, acids, flavones (rutin), et al.

11). Oil extracts (Olea, or herbal oils is achieved by flooding pognieconych, chopped fresh plant materials rich in essential oils. Fresh herbs can pour raw sunflower oil, olive oil or soya oil, grape, poppy. Always a part of the same material give a part of the oil(ratio 1:1). aromatic herbal oil prepare the following: shredded raw vegetable, and pour into a jar, pour the hot oil, close the jar tightly, wrap in a thick blanket or towel and leave for 24 hours. dish with herb oil moving into a dark room at a temperature of 18-22o C and still leave for 2 weeks, then unscrew a jar of oil and filtering through gauze, decanted into bottles bearing the label (name, date) oils stored in dark and cool place (basement, fridge). herbal oils so prepared can be used for bathing, for rubbing, compresses, and for internal use to some extent replacing essential oils. It should be noted, however, that the herbal oils produced by us include in its composition not only essential oils, but also the ballast components, which dissolve in fats, such as chlorophyll, carotenoids, xanthophylls, enzymes, fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, F, F), resins, waxes, fatty acids, alkaloids, et al., which also of great value medicinally. Thus, herbal oil received orally and applied externally will exert a much greater therapeutic effect than the pure essential oil. herbal oils can be added to various dishes, such as caraway, marjoram, coriander and thyme - to meats, soups and sauces.

12). Vegetable Juices (Succi recentes plantarum) is obtained from fresh shredded plant materials using the juicer. It should draw as much juice, which consumes over 24 hours since the fresh juice in warm weather quickly zakisają. You can prolong their service life by 30-60% refill alcohol. For each part of the fresh juice, we give an equal portion of alcohol (eg 100 ml of juice, we give 100 ml of alcohol, may be a simple pure 40% vodka. Many juices can be preserved by adding an appropriate amount of sugar, followed by pasteurization. Juices of herbs and fruits are characterized by a high nutritional value and healing. They contain a number of bodies active in the intact and in natural units. juices should be stored in a refrigerator (below) or in the cold basement.

13). Syrups (Sirupi) is a concentrated sugar solutions in aqueous extracts from plants or fruit juices. Sugar in the concentrated solutions have the property preservation. Most of liquid to sugar ratio is 1:1 or 1:2. Syrup should be stored in bottles with a capacity of 100-200 ml made of dark glass and capable of being tightly closed. In the room (or in a place such as a refrigerator) in which the bottles of syrup spichrzujemy there must be cold. In order to increase the sustainability of syrups may be added glycerin or alcohol 40%. For every 100 ml of syrup consisting of 50% and 50% juice with sugar (1:1 ratio) should then give a 30 ml 30-50 ml of glycerin or alcohol.

14). Ointments (Unguent) is a dense mass consisting of fatty ground powders from solid or liquid body treatments. Ointments should not contain more than 20% of the permanent bodies of medicinal and not more than 10% liquids. Action ointment not only depends on the type of medical bodies, but also to a large extent on the ground. As substrates for the ointment is used fats of different origin (lanolin, vaseline, lard, paraffin, spermaceti, euceryna). To make the ointment, you should first weigh the solids grating them in a mortar, and then lightly moisten them a few drops of water, alcohol or oil (depending on what the component is well dissolved.) Then added gradually in a prescribed amount of the substrate, they are mixed and triturated with medicinal ingredients until a homogeneous mixture. Just cooked color moves from a mortar into a glass or plastic, tightly closing the container handle, such as the cream. On pojemniczku glued label with the name of the ointment and the date of its preparation. Ointments, creams, like, always store in a cool place, eg in a refrigerator (below). Often, for the manufacture of ointments and creams, we have used extracts glycerol, alcohol, oil, vinegar. Before the herbal raw materials will be used for the production of ointments, they should be grinded in a coffee grinder on the tiny powder (dust).

15). Extracts (extract) is concentrated forms of medicines derived from plant materials. Concentrated extracts obtained by flooding the fragmented parts of plants with a small amount of solvent in a ratio of 1:1. The solvent can be water, glycerin, alcohol, vinegar, oil, wine.Before use, dilute it with boiled water or pure alcohol. Aqueous extracts can fix the refill 40% alcohol (ratio 1:1). Concentrated extracts glycerol, water and alcohol can also be mixed with honey or hot zacukrować, thereby generating a very strong syrup with high durability.

16). Powders and backfill (Pulveres et cutipulveres) is obtained after a strong fragmentation of dry herbal material, such as a coffee grinder. Very often we powdered herbs taken orally, such as powdered lily leaves, nettle, dandelion, primrose. The powders should be mixed with natural honey, herbal honey yield, which is very valuable and efficient in the use of medication.

Powders for external use, or call przysypkami zasypkami. Przysypki consist of one or more bodies of medicinal and the substrate, which is aimed at providing a suitable form zasypce and better adhesion to the skin. The best substrate for przysypek is talk - talcum venetum, wheat starch - amylum tritici, potato flour and baking clay koalinowa - bolus alba. Przysypki are prepared in this way that we dare prescribed quantities of ingredients, then mix them thoroughly in a mortar and przesypujemy to the marked container.

Powdered herbs we use in the manufacture of ointments, pastes, suspensions and herbal jellies.

17). Suspension (Suspensiones) are heterogeneous systems consisting of herbal drobniutkiego powder suspended in liquid, usually in liquid honey, in glycerol, the glicermiodzie, water and honey, sugar water or oil. Before use, the suspension should be shaken. Sometimes the water suspension will be adding a preservative, such as alcohol, glycerol.

18). Herbal jelly shall be as follows: in a given amount of gelatin mixed with a small (specified by the author of the provision) the amount of boiling water while heating it slightly. Then add the sugar, liquid gelatin in the specified quantities and at the end of the herbal powder, herbal extract (glycerin, alcohol) and optionally a suitable improves the taste and smell nice. The ingredients are mixed. Then pour into a jelly container giving up tightly and leave in a cool place to solidify. There are jelly for internal use (sugar and bazcukrowe) and for external use (sugar-free, and are thinner than the consistency of jelly for internal use, they have more in its composition of glycerine extract). Jellies for internal use and include oral jelly doodbytowe (such we will make).

19). Herbal Mixtures (Species) is obtained by mixing shredded raw materials from at least two different kinds of herbs. The herbal mixtures prepared infusions, decoctions, Macerata, extracts, intrakty, tinctures, etc. When preparing herbal mixtures have to follow certain rules:

- Raw materials incorporated in a mixture may not contain substances antagonistic to each other (there can be no interaction);

- Should not contain an identical chemical composition but different ingredients, but with a similar pharmacological action, (should prevail synergism between them), ie some of the ingredients should complement the operation of other components, to strengthen them or to prolong the action.

20). Wraps. The chopped herbs poured into boiling water so much to get a slurry. Slurry after 10 minutes (must be warm but not hot), wrapped in gauze and attach to the affected area, then covered with her ceratką or foil and bandages.

21). Masks can be made from fresh or dry herbs.

a). sufficient quantity of fresh raw grind the meat grinder, so we put the prepared mass of vegetation on the washed (degreased salicylic alcohol or herbal), face and neck, and even the neck, after which we cover with a damp lignin (soaked in water containing Azulanu or chamomile infusion). After 20-30 minutes, we clean the facial skin, and washes with warm water and Azulanu (1 teaspoon for half a liter of boiled water) or lemon juice, or herbal vinegar (so we lemon juice or vinegar to the water was acidic) and allowed todry (no rubbing!).

b). appropriate amount of dry, shredded raw pour water in such quantity as to obtain a slurry, the slurry should boil and allow to stand for 15-20 minutes. Warm herbal weight applied on the face, neck and neck, cover with a damp lignin (soaked in the infusion or diluted chamomile Azul). After 20-30 minutes to download the mask and dispose of the face, neck and neck rinse in chamomile infusion, the infusion of linseed, or in water with Azulanu. No rubbing of the skin with a towel, but leave it to dry spontaneously. The pat dry skin Calendula ointment or cream, aloe vera, babkowy, or ointment or cream Linomag.
Characters of herbal medicines and methods of preparation
 

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