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Home Masters dr Henryk Rozanski en Gower Vitamin E - tocopherol, tocopherolum, Tocotrienol

Vitamin E - tocopherol, tocopherolum, Tocotrienol


Vitamin and provitamin
Vitamin E
tocopherol, tocopherol, tocopherolum, Vitamin E, Vitamin E, Tocotrienol

Dr. Henry S. Rozanski

Definition: these are the tocopherols (tocotrienols), chromanu derivatives (fused rings: benzene, tetrahydropiranowy and attached in position 2 of a saturated chain from triizopentenolu. Vitamin E is a thick oily liquid, light yellow, dark yellow, brown or red. Easily oxidized, especially in light. It is soluble in fats, ether, chloroform and acetone. Very slightly soluble in alcohols. Vitamin E has antioxidant properties.

In medicine is used tocopherol acetate, tocopherol wodorobursztynian and tocopherol nicotinate. Esters are more stable than pure form.
On an industrial scale derived from fitolu trimetylohydrochinonu and in the presence of zinc chloride.
Chemical structure: (+) -2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimetylotridecylo)-chroman-5-ol, is a phenolic compound High-, in three forms:


  • alpha,
  • beta,
  • gamma,

differing in the position of methyl groups. In other words, a derivative of vitamin E dihydrochromanu, which in position 2 has a 16-carbon chain diterpenowy, a 6-position phenol group.

There are eight known forms of vitamin E exhibit optical activity.
Represents the greatest biological activity of alpha-tocopherol and right-handed forms.
1 IU vitamin E corresponds to the activity of 1 mg alpha-tocopherol.

The biological activity of tocopherols:
1. Alpha-tocopherol (5,7,8-trimetylotokol) - 100% activity
2. Beta-tocopherol (5,6-dimetylotokol) - 30% of the activity
3. Gamma-tocopherol (7.8-dimetylotokol) - 10% of the activity.
Structural formulas:
Vitamin E
Functions in the body: Vitamin E is an oxidation-reducing factor, participates in the transfer of hydrogen from fawoprotein cytochrome C, is part of the cell membrane and the lysosomal stabilizing their structure and increasing resistance to glutathione peroxidase, prevents oxidation of LDL lipid peroxides, blood, inhibits formation of toxic peroxides of unsaturated fatty acids and active oxygen radicals. Protective factor for the mitochondrial membrane and other structures.
Pharmacological action: vasodilator, to facilitate the flow of blood in the vessels, anti-infarction, anti-inflammatory, stabilizing the structure of cell organelles, including the endothelial cell membranes and, przeciwwysiękowe, antiallergic, protecting vitamin F, A (as carotenoids) and D, the increasing effect of vitamin A (and carotene), vitamin C, coumarins, indandionu and vitamin F, selenium, zinc and copper processes hematopoietic enhancers (hemopoiesis), protection in relation to sperm, oocytes (ova), embryonic and fetal development, Bile, sweep free radicals , antioxidant, antiatherosclerotic, lowering blood cholesterol, protecting against the genome, inhibiting autoimmune processes, which inhibit mutagenesis (prevents mutations) and tumorigenesis (tumor growth inhibitor), hypotensive (blood pressure lowering) agent.
Vitamin E has been shown to antimycotic and przeciwłuszczycowe.Should be administered in the course of autoimmune diseases.Increases absorption of proteins.
Pharmacological synergism of vitamin F, vitamin C, selenium, zinc, copper, vitamin A, vitamin E, chromium, vegetable fats, fish oil, shark oil, yeast.
Metabolism: Vitamin E is absorbed from the intestine into the blood and lymph in the presence of fat, therefore it should be administered during a meal rich in vegetable oils. Is metabolized in the liver and skin, excreted in the bile and urine (metabolite compounds are quinone and acid tokoferonowy). Excreted in urine after binding with glucuronic acid.
Requirement: 30 mg/24 h.
Indications: collagen, acne, dermatitis, eczema, hair loss, diabetes, poisoning, arteriosclerosis, all eye disorders, oligo-and azoospermia (lack or absence of sperm), the impossibility of pregnancy, miscarriage, coronary artery disease, thrombophlebitis, and arteries, menstrual disorders, premature sperm death (given with fructose, carnitine, inositol, mannitol, vitamin F, A, C, choline, iron, and saffron), lupus erythematosus, scleroderma (scleroderma), ulcers, hives, nail disorder, allergy , cirrhosis and hepatitis, gallstones, fatty internal organs (heart, kidney), muscular atrophy (myasthenia gravis, atrophic weakness), cancer, retinopathy, blood hemolysis, hiperlipoproteinemia, potency disorders, hypertension, cystic fibrosis.
The symptoms of hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis: sperm degeneration, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, infertility, miscarriage, placenta degeneration and atrophy, oligospermia, nekrospermia, testicular atrophy, atrophy of the uterus, atrophy of striated muscle (skeletal), degenerative changes in the nervous system (degeneration of the rear lines and corners anterior spinal cord), visceral steatosis, anemia.
Causes of vitamin deficiency: malabsorption, diarrhea, frequent vomiting, permanent use of laxatives, biliary dyskinesia, eating treated with UV rays and oxidants, avoid fats.
The toxicological properties: excessively high doses (above 3 g/24 h) cause digestive disorders, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, muscle disorders, increased intracranial pressure, excessive excitability, general feeling of breakdowns.
Dosage: prophylaxis: 100 mg/24 hours; treatment - 300-1000 mg/24 h, rarely 1200-3000 mg. Orally or intramuscularly.
Major commercial preparations of vitamin E:
1. Vitamin E - capsules, tablets 100, 200, 400 mg.
2. Sevitren (Krka) - a combination preparation containing vitamin E, C, selenium and carotene - Capsules
3. Tacovital (Steigerwald) - Capsules 600 mg.
4. Vitagutt Vitamin E (Schwazhaupt) - Tablets 1 g
5. Tocolion (lab Sciencex) - Capsules 500 mg.
6. Dermovit E (Coel) - 2% ointment.
7. Linoeparol (Agropharm) - cream.
8. Vitamin E (Terpol) - drops of 0.3 g / 1 ml.
Distribution: Wheat germ - 30.5 mg, wheat germ oil - 250-520 mg/100 g, soya oil - 115 mg/100 g, lettuce - 13 mg, cabbage - 6 mg, bananas -1-2 mg, butter - 2.6 mg, olive - 8 mg, sprats - 4.6 mg, egg yolk - 3 mg, linseed oil - 23 mg, corn germ - 16.4 mg, sesame oil - 5 mg.
Among the herbs a lot of vitamin E are: evening primrose, Wierzbówka, wierzbownica, borage, black cumin, birthmarks corn, watercress, lime, lovage, walnut, mountain ash, nettle, wild rose, milk thistle, pea (pea greens 25 mg%), flax, St. John's alfalfa, clover herb.
For more information on the toxicological properties of vitamin E - User Groups


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Poznan 2004

Vitamin E - tocopherol, tocopherolum, Tocotrienol

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