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Vitamin C ascorbic acid, ascorbicum Acidum, Acidum ascorbinicum, Ascorbic Acid, Cevitamic Acid, Vitamin C, heksarunowy acid (Heksarunic Acid)


Vitamin and provitamin
Vitamin C
ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid, ascorbicum Acidum, Acidum ascorbinicum, Ascorbic Acid, Cevitamic Acid, Vitamin C,
heksarunowy acid (Heksarunic Acid)

Dr. Henry S. Rozanski

Medical University. Abstract Background
Department of Social Medicine
Department of History of Medical Sciences
Head: prof. dr hab. Roman K. Meissner, MD
61-771 Poznan
ul. 10 orphans
Definition: The enol form of the gamma-lactone of 3-keto-L-gulonowego (enol lactone form of 3-oxo-L-gulofuranowego) przeciwszkorbutowych properties.
Chemical structure: 2,3-dihydro-L-threo-heksono-1 ,4-lactone.Ascorbic acid is readily decomposed in solution, it requires stability. Trawlszy is in an acidic environment. When oxidized form dehydroascorbic acid, but it is a reversible reaction. Hydrolysis of ascorbic acid leads to 2,3-diketo acid L-gulonowego, któory then rozpaada to oxalic acid. Ascorbic acid for medicinal purposes is derived from the synthesis (the synthesis of D-glucose, D-sorbitol or L-sorbose)

ascorbic acid

Oxidation of ascorbic acid
The reaction of the reversible oxidation of ascorbic acid
Functions in the body: Vitamin C is a carrier of hydrogen and electrons in the system of oxidation-reductive.
The organisms exist pozamitochondrialne oxidase, whose primary function is to transfer the protons and electrons from organic substrates to oxygen to form water or hydrogen peroxide and oxidized product. These enzymes. associated with cell membranes are oxidases miedzioproteinowych or flawoproteinowych.Ascorbate oxidase belongs to miedzioprotein. Ascorbate oxidase catalyzes the reaction:

ascorbic acid + 1 / 2 O2 ---> H2O + dehydroascorbic acid

Dehydroascorbic acid forms a redox system of glutathione, cytochrome C, nucleotides and flawinowymi pirydynowymi; involved in the metabolism of phenylalanine, tyrosine, folic acid (conversion of folic acid folinic acid), histamine, iron, dopamine, DOPA, fenolopirogronowego acid to homogentisic acid, collagen , prostaglandins, noradrenaline (the process of DOPA-amine ---> noradrenaline), corticosteroids. Is an inhibitor of hyaluronidase.Essential for the synthesis of hyaluronic acid, insulin, serotonin, and hydroxylation of proline (hydroxyproline arises) and lysine (hydroxylizine arises.) Participates in osteo (bone) and bone mineralization.
Pharmacological Action: increases the absorption and availability of iron, activates the synthesis of oxytocin and vasopressin, enhances the synthesis of immunoglobulins acting immunostimulating, activates T lymphocytes, increases hemocytopoezę (formation of blood cells), enhances the synthesis of hemoglobin, induces the processes of detoxification and accelerates healing, strengthens blood vessels. The dose of 500 mg of a diuretic. Proper levels of vitamin C in the blood is from 1923 to 1985 umol / l (0.4-1.5 mg%).The strongest works in the presence of iron, copper, zinc, flavonoids (vitamin P) and calcium. Prevents the accumulation of cholesterol in the walls of blood vessels (an anti), prevents cancer


Demand: 75 mg/24 h, during pregnancy and lactation: 100 mg/24 h
Indications: skin diseases, hair and nails, anemia, gynecological and ocular osłabiebie, the collapse of the immune system, symptoms and diseases of old age, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancer, treatment with salicylates, infectious disease, hemorrhagic, hormonal disorders,convalescence, spots on the skin, teeth decay.
The symptoms of hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis. Early symptoms of hypovitaminosis C are changes in the skin and central nervous system with the characteristics neurasthenia. The skin becomes pale, dry, finely scaly, rough. Gums are pale first, then subject to congestion and become bluish tint .. Around the necks of the teeth are dark red coat. Brush their teeth, eating, drinking hot liquids appears bleeding gums. Insufficient amount of vitamin C produces many signs of aging: wrinkles, the sudden deepening of wrinkles with stains, bruising, and under fingernails, tilt body shape, increased tendency to allergies and infections.

A more advanced hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis (Scorbutus - scurvy, rot) on the gums spongy growths appear, in the form of cloaking the entire surface of the rollers gradually teeth. Granulation tissue bleeds. When tooth decay coincides brudnoszarym granulation coating. After separation of the raid remain szkorbutowe ulcers and stomatitis. From the mouth comes out nasty, smelly (zgniłopodobny) smell. Teeth stagger and fall. Increased salivation (saliva often comes from the mouth). Speaking, eating, keeping a closed mouth hurts. Appear bloody effusions doped - petechiae (petechial rash. Petechiae appear on the thighs, feet, around joints, on the buttocks. After some time the rash przeekształca in bloody effusions. This is accompanied by swelling of the limbs, soreness and outstanding sinoszkarłatne zabbarwienie or yellowish skin. At the same time are: senile gait, blood collection, conjunctivitis, epistaxis, uterine bleeding in women, serous-bloody effusions and hemorrhages into the joints and serous cavities, such as pleura, peritoneum, pericardium. There is a drop in blood pressure of 80/60 mm Hg, the heart expands the boundaries, the deaf hear the tones, systolic murmur over the tip, there is a shortness of breath. In the blood develops secondary hypochromic anemia. Avitaminosis C reveals the constipation, then diarrhea, sometimes bloody, and niedokwaśnością. It can be seen fragility of bones, muscle atrophy(atrophia) and stiffening of the joints (ankylosis). In the case of the intensive development of suppurative changes may result in systemic sepsis and rapid death.
The prognosis is good in cases gnilca (scorbutus) in a timely diagnosed and properly treated. Scurvy is not treated leads to death.
Treatment of scurvy: the administration of vitamin C in doses of 200-500 mg, moreover the whole set of vitamins and minerals. Food should be easily digestible and high in calories.

In case of scurvy, it is recommended that parenteral administration of vitamin C.
Formerly, when lacking the chemically pure crystalline vitamin C was administered to patients rot plant preparations rich in this vitamin: barberry, wild rose, Sea Buckthorn (fruit), and decoction of the needles of coniferous trees: fir, cedar, spruce, pine and even: 0 ,2-0, 4 kg of fresh needles, crushed and covered with 1 liter of boiling water, boiled 20 minutes, fitrowano the canvas. Added to the resultant decoction citric acid or tartaric acid (1 teaspoon per liter), and honey or sugar. We also recommend the cranberry juice, decoctions of hawthorn juice, sauerkraut juice, cucumbers and beets, and sourdough bread acid. Preparation of the needle was given 2-3 times daily with 250 ml. Chloride was administered intravenously washed wapnia.Jamę oral decoction of barberry. If contracture (contracture) were used mechano-and mud wraps.
Causes of vitamin deficiency: a febrile illness, poisoning, pregnancy, lactation, an overactive thyroid, cancer, shock, liver disease, tuberculosis, indigestion, dyspepsia, smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes, diarrhea, infectious disease, long-term administration of vitamin A and D, anemia, diuretics.
Contraindications: high doses of vitamin C (over 500 mg) should not be used in people with a tendency to nephrolithiasis and biliary.
Dosage: prof. Linus Pauling recommended dose of 3-5 g of vitamin C/24 h. Note, however, that such doses often cause diarrhea, vomiting, the development of urolithiasis, malaise, abdominal pain.
Generally accepted dose: 100-500 mg/24 h, a maximum of 1-2 g daily; children 100-200 mg/24 h.

Major commercial preparations of vitamin:
1. Vitamin C (Polfa Kutno, Argon, Polfa Grodzisk, Pliva, Herbapol Wroclaw, GlaxoSmithKline, Aflofarm) - tabl. powl. draż. 100 and 200 mg amp. 500 mg / 2 ml.
2. Vitamin C - tabl. Effervescent 1 g (1,000 mg).
3. Top C (GR Lane) - Natural Vitamin C from fruits cherries and wild rose & orange oil - 200 mg - tablets.
4. Acerola C 100 (Puritan's Pride) - Vitamin C + natural flavonoids - the tablet.
5. Vitamin C, Vitamin C Burgerstein (Synthesis, Hasco-Lek, Antistress Switzerland) - Capsules 100, 200, 500 mg.
6. Vitamine C Faure (Ciba Vision) - Eye Drops 2% (10 ml).
7. Ascorvit (Jenapharm) - amp. 500 mg / 5 ml, draż. 200 and 500 mg.
8. Cebion (Merck) - tabl. chewable 100 mg.
9. Juvit (Hasco-Lek) - drops (1 ml contains 100 mg of vitamin C and 0.5 mg disodium EDTA).
10. Ascorell (Sanorell) - amp. 500 mg / 5 ml.
Occurrence: 100 ml fresh lemon juice contains up to 70 mg of vitamin C, lemon peel - 200-205 mg/100 g, needles of pine, spruce, larch, cedar, fir contains about 200-270 mg vitamin C/100 g, infusion the herb Primrose - 800 mg, horseradish-root - 200-300 mg, rosehip - 475-2000 mg/100 g, immature fruit of walnut - 2500 mg/100 g, spinach - 50 mg, nettle-herb - 170 - 200 mg, black cherry-fruit - 100-150 mg, blackcurrant-fruit - 157 mg/100 g, parsley, dill - 150 mg, barberry-120-140 mg/100 g fruit, plantain - 20,7-42, 2 mg, hop-leaf - 95-190 mg, without a wild black-fruit - 200-280 mg, celandine swallow greens - 170 mg, rowan - fruit - 100-200 mg, strawberry-fruit - 100 mg, Chinese tea - 156 -233 mg/100 g, pepper - fruit - 200 mg/100 g, strawberries - 60 mg, viburnum - 70 mg, hawthorn - 250-450 mg, szypiorek - 60 mg, cauliflower - 60 mg, tomatoes - 1940-1950 mg, potatoes - 10 mg, lettuce - 30 mg, radish - 20 mg, gooseberries - 50 mg, red currant - 30 mg/100 g, cranberries - 12 mg%.


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Poznan 2004

Vitamin C ascorbic acid, ascorbicum Acidum, Acidum ascorbinicum, Ascorbic Acid, Cevitamic Acid, Vitamin C,  heksarunowy acid (Heksarunic Acid)