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Ancient and modern means of antidiarrhoeal antidiarrhoica diarrhea

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Ancient and modern means of antidiarrhoeal
Antidiarrhoica
Diarrhea

Dr. Henry S. Rozanski

Medical University. Abstract Background
Department of Social Medicine
Department of History of Medical Sciences
Head: prof. dr hab. Roman Meissner, MD

Diarrhoea - Diarrhoe, or diarrhea is repeated throughout the day emptying of liquid or semi-liquid reflux, associated with increased physical activity, and impaired intestinal digestion and absorption. In most content can be excreted undigested particles of food zaobserować.
ill
The causes of diarrhea:
1. Psychological factors (stress, shock, excitement);
2. Physical factors (cooling, overheating, eating cold food, hot food too spożywanaie);
3. Chemical agents (xenobiotics bowel irritants, toxins, plant, drugs, toxins released during spoilage of food);
4. Infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, invertebrates, parasites);
5. Allergic factors (food allergens)
In our climate of diarrhea are most frequently caused by viral infection, because then it makes no sense given antibiotics and sulfonamides. Of course, if we exclude such a procedure is infection with bacteria or protozoa.

viscera

From the clinical point of view of diarrhea can be divided into:
1. Diarrhea of central origin - to stimulate the nerve center of X = false (parasympatykotonia) -> increased peristalsis (diarrhea emotional). Administered anticholinergic medications, and then soothing.
2. Diarrhea of peripheral - irritation of the sensory endings in the intestinal mucosa, the liberation of reflexes and motor nerve intramurla through X -> intensify peristalsis -> diarrhea.

doctor
Treatment:
1. Causal treatment, such as medicines protozoonicidal, antibacterial agents, antiparasitica)
2. Symptomatic treatment, such as anticholinergic drugs antidiarrhoeal (parasympatykolityczne), astringent, miolityczne.
Antidiarrhoeal drugs cause suppression of the excessive peristaltic movements of intestines, prolonging the residence time of ingesta in the gastrointestinal tract, some have a chemotherapeutic effect (inhibiting growth of pathogenic microorganisms, such as sulfonamides, antibiotics), antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and absorbent.
Breakdown of drugs with anti-

1. Antidiarrhoeal inflammatory drugs synthetic origin
- Colloidal
- Astringent
- Adsorption
2. Antidiarrhoeal inflammatory drugs of natural origin
- Colloidal and mucous
- Astringent
- Adsorption
3. Antidiarrhoeal drugs parasympatykolityczne
4. Antidiarrhoeal drugs and spasmolytic miolityczne

drugs
Treatment of diarrhea should begin by giving a laxative to remove from the gastrointestinal tract inflammatory secretions, microorganisms, toxic products of metabolism, allergens, toxins or pathogenic organisms. Only after this treatment should be given drugs, symptomatic or causal agents. If the cause of diarrhea is complex or unknown therapy is recommended to provide safe and simple medication chemical adsorption and astringent. Similarly, we proceed in cases of prolonged diarrhea, or if it is not possible to give a laxative (severe fluid and electrolyte, an acute inflammation of the mucous membrane).

Inhibition of severe diarrhea medicines beyond the loss of fluid retention, mineral salts and food enhances the absorption of light intestinal bacterial toxins and abnormal distribution of toxic products of intestinal contents. Can be prevented by giving absorbing substances.

People with diarrhea should drink large quantities of the highly mineral water, but poor in sulfur compounds. Water wafer quickly compensate for any deficiencies and electrolyte. It is preferred to oral administration of glucose, which increases absorption of sodium and water from the intestines into the blood.

physiology

Measures parasympatykolityczne (anticholinergic)

These are substances which are competing antagoonistami acetylcholine receptors in the cholinergic, which abolish the symptoms of parasympathetic stimulation.

1. Atropine and hyoscine are in Mandrake nightshade Atropa belladonna berry, black lulku in Hyoscyamus niger and Datura stramonium bieluniu dziędzierzawie. These alkaloids reduce smooth muscle tone and inhibit gastrointestinal peristalsis. It should be administered in conjunction with anti-inflammatory drugs. Are among the most potent drugs with anti-.

datura
Datura dziędzierzawa
Image source: http://erick.dronnet.free.fr/belles_fleurs_de_france/

cry
Deadly nightshade
Image source: http://www.spacerad.com/lara/plant.html

Henbane
Image source: http://www.atlas-roslin.pl/
Measures spasmolytic and miolityczne

Acting smooth muscle relaxant on the gastrointestinal tract, inhibit peristaltic movements. These substances must be administered along with anti-inflammatory agents. Some stimulate opioid receptors.
1. Drotaveryna
2. Papaverine
3. Diphenoxylate
4. Skopolan
5. Loperamide
6. Pipenzolat
7. Izopropamid
8. Tricyklamol
Measures adsorption

These are substances having the ability to bind (absorb) in the gastrointestinal tract of various chemical compounds (eg metals, toxins, protozoa, bacterial toxins, allergens, drugs).
1. Carbo ligni charcoal, activated carbon activatus Carbo, Carbo animalis animal charcoal, medicinal charcoal - Carbo medicinalis. It is the oldest of substances with anti-absorption.

Activated carbon is obtained by roasting with charcoal, coal or animal in furnaces without contact with air. This opens the active sites with carbon absorption, which can determine the number of methylene (activated carbons have a good number of methylene 200-270 mg / g) and iodine number (for high-quality activated carbons that number is 1000-1300 mg / g). Medicinal charcoal absorbs gases (removes flatulence), alcohol (1 g carbon ethanol consumes 300 mg, 400 mg phenol, mercuric chloride 1800 mg, 800 mg of morphine), bacterial toxins, inflammatory mucosal secretions, alkaloids, antibiotics, heavy metals, phenols, salicylates, protein.Weakly absorb acids, bases, iron sulphate, cyanides, sulfonylurea.Activated carbon does not make sense given with other drugs, because it absorbs everything you encounter in the gastrointestinal tract. In animals, is effective at a dose of at least 1500 mg / day.Charcoal works przeciwbiegunkowo doses of at least 3 g / day.

activated carbon
2. Pectins are composed of macromolecular compounds galaktanu, araban and galakturonianu. These include polymers. In plants, often found in bound form of calcium (calcium pektynian) constructing the cell wall (the middle lamina).
A characteristic feature is the ability of pectic substances gel.Pectins form gels with fruit juices, but the current is adequate amount of sugar and acid, thus play an important role in the clotting of jellies and jams. Pectins are mainly in fruits of medicinal plants.Their number can reach up to several percent of dry weight. Much of pectic substances in radish tubers (up to 20%) and cell juice citrus fruit (Aurantioideae). Pectins are included: raspberry (1.80%), apples Garden (0.50%), strawberry (1.50%), wild elderberry (1.40%), barberry (1%), hawthorn (1.50 %), blackthorn plum (0.73%).
Pectins are important in human medicine. Exhibit antibacterial properties, absorption (absorbent), antidiarrhoeal, antiatherosclerotic and antihemorrhagical (accelerate blood clotting). As standard, regulate bowel movements and gastric contents. Soothe inflammation. Eliminate digestive disorders. They can be used as natural or as drugs. Acidify ingesta creating unfavorable conditions for bacterial growth.

pectin
Pectin in the cell wall
Image source: http://konarc.naro.affrc.go.jp/
Valves and other colloidal substances

Locks and colloidal substances cover the surface of mechanically digestive mucosa, isolating it from irritating stimuli. Thanks to an anti-inflammatory, mainly in the initial section of the gastrointestinal tract, as in further digested. Also inhibit the secretion of digestive juices and intestinal peristalsis. This group of drugs include herbs rich in mucilages, pectin, starch, also polyvidon (Bolinan) and clay Bolus alba.

Salep
Image source: http://www.sns.dk/dyrogplanter/orkideer/

1. Bolus alba - kaolin (koalinowa) and other aluminum silicates and adsorbująco osłaniająco work. Before World War II, commonly used to treat diarrhea, catarrhal colitis, small intestine and stomach, also with hyperacidity, peptic ulcer disease. Externally for the treatment of exuding wounds and pimples, for dulling and drying the skin with seborrhea. Was applied orally at a dose of 200-250 g of boiled water at once or several times a day for 25 g.

2. Polivinylopirolidon is a polymer of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (a derivative of polyvinyl alcohol). It is protective, powlekająco and soothes the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. Used to treat catarrhal gastrointestinal tract and in ophthalmology to treat the symptoms of dry eye. Orally administered at a dose of 2 g 3-4 times a day.
polivinylpirolidyn
3. Herbs rich in mucilages. Locks are a mixture of polysaccharides, sugar alcohols, and acids uronowych that have the ability to create colloids in the aquatic environment. Membranes to the raw materials include marshmallow root Radix Altheae (5-10%), flax seed Semen Lini (12-20%), coltsfoot leaf Folium Farfarae (7-8%), plantain psyllium seed - Semen Psylli (10-15%) , fenugreek seed - Semen Foenugraeci (20-30%), leaf marshmallow - Folium Altheae (8-10%), tubers salep - Tuber salep (48%).

clay
Kaolin


Cementing

1. Astringent herbs. These are plants rich in tannins and phenolic acids. These substances precipitate the protein, giving a call insoluble in water. On the mucosal surface layer of denatured protein is formed which inhibits further irritation, inflammation and inhibits the formation of exudate. Tannins and phenolic acids associated with flavonoids and sugars also act on nerve endings devastatingly sensory and motor, inhibiting pain reactions and motility. Shrink and seal blood vessels, leukocytes and platelets agglutinate acting exudation. Also inhibit minor bleeding. In higher concentrations can inactivate digestive enzymes and inhibit the processes of digestion and absorption of food and function of mucous glands and digestive tract. Proteins, locks and pectin in plants soften excessively astringent action of tannins and phenolic acids. For plant materials with a strong astringent include rhizome pięciornika - Rhizoma Tormentillae (30% tannins), rhizome Ophiuchus - Rhizoma Bistortae (20-25%%), root ratanii - pastwinu - Radix Ratanhiae (18%, also contains an alkaloid), rhizomes Kuklík - Rhizoma Gei (15%, also contains eugenol), savory herb - Herb Satureiae (8%, also 1.8% essential oil rich in carvacrol and cymol), bilberry fruit - Fructus myrtilli (7-10%, also glycosides phenol), oak bark - Cortex Quercus (16%), dębianki - galasy - Galla (50%), bilberry leaf - Folium myrtilli (20%), turnip greens - Herba Agrimoniae (10%), St. John's alchemilla - Herb Alchemillae ( 8-12%).

galasy
Galasy - dębianki - Gallae
Image source: http://www.pharmakobotanik.de/

2. Albuminian (białczan) tannin = Tanalbina - Taninum albuminatum.Białczan tannins are achieved by combining tannic acid from plant or animal protein. Thanks to tannic acid retains its astringent, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties but loses the mucous membrane irritant. It is the strongest astringent with anti-measures.Inactivate most bacterial toxins, fungal, protozoal and viral infections. Binding alkaloids. Inhibits inflammatory reactions and effusion. Inhibits the processes of fermentation and decay. Has a strong deodorising. Inhibits minor bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract constricts blood vessels, inhibits the growth of fungi. Absorb heavy metals. In the gut breaks down to gallic acid with significant antiseptic properties. Gallic acid and its derivatives are absorbed from the intestine into the blood and excrete in the urine, urinary tract disinfectants. At a dose of 1-4 g / day.
tannin
Tannin

3. Bismuth salts: basic bismuth nitrate Bismuthum subnitricum, basic bismuth carbonate - Bismuthum subcarbonicum, basic bismuth gallate - Bismuthum subgallicum, trójbromofenolan bismuth - Bismuthum tribromophenylicum, valerate Bismuthum valerianicum bismuth phosphate, bismuth - Bismuthum phosphoricum, beta-naftolan bismuth - Bismuthum betanaphtholicum belong to the oldand certain drugs in action astringent, anti-inflammatory and antiseptics. They are used in a dose of 500 mg 3-4 times daily. Also used in dermatology, and dentistry as disinfectants and zasuszające. Act locally. Poorly absorbed from the intestine into the blood.

bismuth
Bismuth - bismuthum
(Source image: http://www.museums.udel.edu:16080/mineral/)

4. Alum - Alumen - potassium aluminum sulfate hydrate has a strong astringent, anti-inflammatory and krwiotamujące. Formerly administered orally at a dose of 1-3 g 2-3 times a day. After World War II only used on mucous membranes and skin, to inhibit the minor bleeding, the treatment of wet eczema, skin inflammation potnicowego, gargling, less frequently in ophthalmology and gynecology. Is an effective means przeciwbiegunkowym.
alum
5. Calcium compounds. As antidiarrhoeal agents were used: calcium carbonate carbonicum Calcium, Calcium phosphate, calcium lactate and calcium phosphoricum lacticum Calcium, Lime Aqua Water also calcis. It was believed that these calcium compounds seal the blood vessels, intestines, reducing exudate, offset the allergenic effects of some nutrients. According to most pharmacologists significant therapeutic efficacy of these substances (except for lime water) in the diarrhea is questionable.Solid calcium compounds were administered at a dose of 1-3 g 2-3 times a day.
Measures plant antidiarrhoeal

Antidiarrhoeal herbs exert multidirectional on the digestive system, because they contain many pharmacologically active substances.Virtually all plants are rich in przeciwwbiegunkowe: flavonoids, anthocyanins, tannins, phenolic glycosides, but some also have alkaloids, locks, pectin, lactones, quinones, naphthoquinones, benzochinony, lignans, saponins.
opium
Leaking milk with poppy - Opium (after drying)
Image source: http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/
Antidiarrhoeal plant materials can be divided in terms of pharmacological potency:
- Strong and confident acting, such as Opium (papaverine, morphine, codeine), rhizome Rhizoma pięciornika Tormentillae, rhizome Rhizoma Bistortae Ophiuchus, walnut leaf - Folium Juglandis, galasy - Gallae.
- A moderate-potency, eg, a leaf tea - Thea Folium leaf sage - Salviae Folium leaf witch - Folium Hamamelidis, fruit and leaf blueberry - Fructus et Folium myrtilli, herb marjoram Maioranae Herb, bark oak - Quercus Cortex, St. John's skylight - Herb Euphrasiae.
- The weak and unsteady acting against diarrhea, but often recommended, for example Anthodium Chamomillae chamomile, marjoram herb - Herb Origano, yarrow herb - Herb Millefolii, mint leaves - Folium Menthae.

mantle
Alchemilla - mantle
Image source: http://www.cjb.unige.ch
mantle
Mantle - Alchemilla
Image source: http://www.toyen.uio.no/

pieciornik
Pięciornik chicken herb Potentilla tormentilla (Necker) = Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeuschel
Very old antidiarrhoeal agents

1. Bismuth salts - astringent, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory.
2. Nitricum Argentum (silver nitrate) + Tanninum (Tanargentan, Tanninum albuminatum cum Argentum), seu Argentum nitricum + Cortex Quercus (oak bark), astringent, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory.
3. Colloidal Argentum - Collargolum - colloidal silver - astringent, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant.
3. Aqua Calcis - water limestone - mostly in pediatrics, astringent, and anti-inflammatory przeciwwysiękowe.
4. Sulfuricum Ferrum = iron sulphate - astringent, antiseptic, strengthening the general anti-inflammatory.
5. Tannin + formaldehyde - Tannoform - antiseptic and astringent properties.
6. Tannin + benzonaftol (Tannaphthol), an astringent and disinfectant.
7. Tannin + bismuth salts (eg Kälber-Pillen also contained pięciornika rhizome and pomegranate bark; Kälberruhrttabletten - also contained cortex and extractum chinowca Djamboe), an astringent, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory.
8. Tannin + salicylic acid (Tanninum albuminatum salicylatum), an astringent, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory.
9. Powder Dover - Pulvis Doveri - include Radix Ipecacuanhae and Opium, breathtaking action.
10. Opium + Tanninum albuminatum - very impressive operation.
11. Gallate, aluminum + borax (Gallussaures Aluminium mit 10% Borax) - Tannalborin - astringent and anti-inflammatory.
12. Plumbum aceticum - Lead acetate - astringent and anti-inflammatory.
13. Megnesia mouth - roasted magnesia - magnesium oxide, Magnesium oxydatum - zapierająco in small doses, at higher doses (2-3 g) - laxative.
14. Rhizoma Rhei (Radix Rhei) - rhizome rzewienia (rhubarb) - in small doses (1-2 g) zapierająco and astringent, and in large doses (3-4 g) - laxative.
15. Cutch (catechu) - Acacia catechu Willd. and Acacia total dust. - Extract from the leaves and wood - astringent, anti-inflammatory, splendid, antihemorrhagical. In the form of a tincture or a powder.
16. Cortex Cascarillae (kaskaryliowiec, kaskarylia) - Croton eluteria Bennet. family Euphorbiaceae in the form of tincture or powder - astringent, stimulates digestion.
17. Cortex Chinae - bark chinowca - stimulates the secretion of digestive juices, inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, antiseptic, astringent.In the form of powders and tinctures, rarely brew.
18. Carbo medicinalis + Bolus - C + clay koalinowa - absorbing action.

oak
Oak - Quercus
Image source: http://www.awl.ch/heilpflanzen/

In the 30 century in Germany, Austria and Switzerland were available preparations containing bacteria (Clostridium), lactic acid, such as Lacteol. Instructed the apple diet therapy (Apfeltherapie, Apfelkur), which used the properties of pectin and organic acids present in fruits.

Beta-naftolan bismuth combined with calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate (chalk) and administered orally.

Kondurango cortex Cortex Condurango (climber - Marsdenia condurango Reichb. Asclepiadaceae family) was combined with an acid and rhizomes taninowym pięciornika.

Diarrhea were treated with the mixture of nervous: bromatum Calcium (calcium bromide) - 10 g, 20 g of tincture Valerianae, Mucilago salep (Decoctum salep 2,0:200) ad 200 g (3 times a day after the spoon).

Feeling broken and simultaneous preparation to combating symptoms of diarrhea:
Rp.
Tinct. Opii spl.
Tinct. Cinnamom. 6.0 aa
Tinct. Strychni 3.0
M.S. 2-3 times a journal of 10 drops.
A list of some of my pages
Phytotherapy
diarrhea
Image source: http://udc-nuh.netcare.com.sg/
Document copyrighted
Poznan 2004????
Ancient and modern means of antidiarrhoeal antidiarrhoica diarrhea
 


Cytat

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Coraz więcej dzieci w Polsce faszeruje się lekami,
a liczba zatruć medykamentami lawinowo rośnie.
Najgorsze jest to, że maluchy nie kupują zabójczych
środków same, lecz dostają je także od nadopiekuńczych
rodziców. (...) Z ostatniego raportu organizacji ESPAD
(The European School Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs),
która bada stosowanie używek wśród młodzieży,
wynika, że do nadużywania leków przyznało się nie mal 20 proc.
polskich nastolatków. To ponad dwa razy więcej niż wynosi
europejska średnia.

Cytat z Dziennika Metro nr 1262 z dnia 5 luty 2008
Nastoletni lekomani
Marcelina Szumer
Anita Karwowska