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Home Masters dr Krzysztof Michalak The role of glutamine in the therapy of cancers The role of glutamine in the therapy of cancers (1/4)

The role of glutamine in the therapy of cancers (1/4)

----- ----- Alternative Medicine Newsletter 

The role of glutamine in the therapy of cancers (1/4) 

Diagnosis - RAK. There is hardly a man who would not come across someone with cancer. Cancer is in any case a very strong stress for both the patient and his family. Treatment of patients according to the standards of academic medicine is primarily surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Doctors, however, 
very reluctant to experiment with substances that could help this form of therapy, not to mention the use of alternative methods of treatment, even for those patients whose chemo-and radiotherapy do not give any chance for a surgical cure is impossible. 

Medical non-academic support for cancer therapy 
provides an enormous amount of different substances to be wonderful 
cure for cancer. Many of these are an attempt to extort money from 
patient. Some of them may, in some cases 
indeed, help. 
In today's article I would like to focus on one view 
chemical and provide a summary of results from research in 
application in cancer therapy to relatively simple compound, 
commonly used by bodybuilders, namely - GLUTAMINE. 

Glutamine is one of 20 amino acids commonly found in 
all proteins. The human body can synthesize it yourself. A 
However, it is unusual. Its uniqueness is associated with several 
aspects. Here they are: 

1. The first stage of burning of almost all amino acids are replacing them 
in the muscles of glutamine and to a lesser extent alanine. In this 
wytransportowywane as they are the muscles, and then consumed by 
other tissues as fuel (2). For this reason, glutamine helps 
save all the other amino acids. 

2. Glutamine is a very fast, priority fuel for epithelial 
intestinal tract and immune system, a very important system, which 
the fight against cancer must operate smoothly. Glutamine quickly enter into 
metabolic pathway of combustion, which was very easily turns into acid 
glutamic acid, which is then easily transformed into acid 
alpha-ketoglutarowy - one of the amino acids in the Krebs cycle 

3. Synthesis of glutamine can occur in each cell. However, in a 
energy shortages in its synthesis of the cell decreases. This is due to the fact 
with the substitution of glutamic acid glutamine requires the delivery of a portion 

4. Glutamine is generally bad for fuel cells 
cancer. This follows from the fact that it enters the Krebs cycle before 
succinate dehydrogenase complex - an enzyme found 
only in the mitochondria, rather than acting, like most 
other Krebs cycle enzymes, also in the cytoplasm of the cell. 
It is known that the majority of cancer cells to a greater extent 
generate energy from anaerobic glycolysis of sugar and to a lesser 
degree from the combustion of fat in the mitochondria. 
To give it brings so much energy the body, which can 
make better use of energy production in mitochondria than 
tumor that has this ability impaired. 
On average looking, the more malignant the tumor, including 
less he is able to produce energy in the mitochondria and the 
may be potentially greater profit from the use of glutamine. 

5. On the other hand, we must also remember, however, that glutamine is 
consumed by cancer cells to the synthesis of nucleic acids and 
fatty acids, and thus the building blocks of the substance of the cell. The so-called. 
Cancer cachexia is precisely the effect of glutamine by eating whole 
cancer, so that it lacked the body. Organism to produce 
glutamine - starts to break down its own muscle. 

6. Glutamine is an essential ingredient for the synthesis of the main 
intracellular antioxidant and detoksykanta - glutathione. Without 
glutamine, glutathione levels drop quickly, and healthy cells can easily 
subject to degeneration, particularly in the use of chemo-and 
In today's article, however, I would like to focus on 
properties of glutamine as a factor which reduces the side 
of chemo-and radiotherapy and escalating their action 
For healthy subjects, the amino acid glutamine is a neutral and less 
important. It is also the most abundant amino acid, 
comprising 60% of the pool of free amino acids in the blood. Since glutamine 
contains two amino groups of amino acids may also be the most 
universal (1). As a priority fuel for rapidly dividing 
cells include: enterocytes, colonocytes, lymphocytes and fibroblasts, 
in this respect is more effective than glucose. It provides 
also substrates for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines needed for DNA synthesis 
and RNA. In the kidney, glutamine is incorporated into the acid balance 
base through the production of ammonia (3). 

In periods of increased metabolic stress is glutamine 
released from skeletal muscle and the concentration of intracellular 
glutamine decreases by more than 50% (4-6). Roth and others found that patients 
with peritoneal sepsis, survival was dependent on intracellular 
concentrations of glutamine (7). Although the body can synthesize glutamine
It is currently treated as periods of amino acid catabolism 

The rate of glutamine synthesis can not be maintained at a high 
levels during stress. Furst et al. suggest that during stress 
may be necessary to supplement glutamine in a dose of 15-35g to protect 
glutamine muscle, to maintain the integrity of the intestines, provide fuel 
for cells with rapid metabolism and improve the overall nitrogen balance 

1) Kaproth, P. Glutamine: Current role in nutrition support, 
12:1,5-7, 1992 
2) Bergstrom, J, et al, intracellulare free amino acid concentrations in 
human muscle tissue. J Appl Physiol 36:693-697,1974. 
3) Klimberg V.S. et al, Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am J Surg, 
4) JP Vant et al, Plasma amino acid profiles in sepsis and stress. 
Ann Surg 209:57-62,1989 
5) Askanazi, J et al, Muscle and plasma amino acids Following injury: 
Influence of intercurrent infection. AnnSurg 192:78-85,1980 
6) Furst P et al, Influence of amino acid supply on nitrogen and 
Plasma amino acid metabolism in Severe Trauma. Acta Chir Scand suppl. 
7) Roth E et al, Metabolic Disorders in Severe abdominal sepsis: 
Glutamine deficiency in skeletal muscle. Clin Nutr. 1:25-41, 1982 
8) Furst P et al, Evidence for a nutritional need for glutamine in 
Catabolic Patients. Kidney Int 36:5287-92,1989 

tbc ... 

MD Piotr Krzysztof Michalak 
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The role of glutamine in the therapy of cancers (1/4)

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