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Obesity prevention

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1. The role of diet in the development wysokowęglowodanowej otłości

Statistical studies show that obesity in highly developed countries takes the form of an epidemic now. Man's propensity to overeat and use manufacturers wysokoprzetwarzanej buying food, advertising and media sector. Most often recommended for those intermediates that have the greatest profit, or sweets, processed milk, potatoes, meat, prepared foods and beverages. Intrusive ads with famous actors, men of science, it reinforces our belief that buying and eating these foods will provide us the health, eternal youth and vitality. Feeling constant hunger and lack of satiety is related to the lack of the basic ingredients in processed foods such as minerals, vitamins, and appropriate types of proteins and fats. The paradox is that obesity is associated with chronic malnutrition and the body looks for the needed components to make up their deficiency. This problem did not exist among the primitive peoples who eat natural products. The most catastrophic situation in the U.S. and in European countries that have adopted the American fashion nutrition.

2. Theories of the origin of diabetes secondary

Obesity is the cause of diseases of civilization are considered as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, with all its complications. In the design of modern medicine, it is assumed that the excessive levels of insulin in the blood and the intolerance of the body, are a side effect of obesity. French physician, prof. Michel Montignac PhD thesis put forward the contrary, that it really excessive levels of insulin in the blood is the cause rather than consequence of obesity. Figuratively speaking, the excessive levels of insulin in the blood is a consequence of the modern diet, resulting in too high concentration of glucose in the blood. Montignac, in his book "Eat to lose weight," a notion so. glycemic index. Carbohydrates divides the "good" with low glycemic index and the "bad" about a high index. In simple terms, this index is higher, the faster growing concentration of blood sugar after eating carbohydrates. Is now the preferred diet consists of products with a high glycemic index as grain refined (purified from bran), potatoes, rice and refined sugar, confectionery, and low fat. Recommending products consisting of carbohydrates with low glycemic index such as vegetables (including legumes), fruits, cereal products of crude, you can get the effect of reducing the amount of secreted insulin, which directly leads to weight loss. Additional advantage of this action is to lower blood sugar levels, normalization of the levels of triglycerides and cholesterol.

Michael Montignac'a The results have long been ignored and ridiculed by the world of science. They Burzyły canons of medicine in understanding the causes of diabetes secondary education. Undoubtedly, also refute the argument about the merits of eating foods high in carbohydrates and very low in fat.

 

3. Facts and myths of modern dietetics

Scientists on the ground that occurs "inherited" obesity in all family members, do not take into account the transmission of the same eating habits from generation to generation. As a joke I am going to my friend's story

"A lady always home to cook a large ham in a small saucepan, because in this way, her mom cooked. Once I get it too much. Ashamed that she could not find justification for cooking hams it in a small pot, she asked her husband to call the her mother. And here's the answer - I did not have a larger pot. "

This type of "truth" are transmitted in the textbooks on the principles of nutrition and published in books by many authors, and consequently becoming the scientific canon.

 

Examples of myths:

  1. The primary cause of obesity is excess fat in the diet and no carbs.
  2. Counting the number of calories consumed per day, will guard us from the appearance of being overweight.
  3. Restricting calorie intake in long-term use, will reduce body weight.

Recommended by nutritionists such as eating 1500 cal a day, is always theoretical. In the tables of many books, published different calorific values ??of the same products. Their energy value varies significantly depending on whether you eat them raw or cooked, with or without fat. The proportion of fat relative to protein and carbohydrate consumed meat depends on how the farm animals, culinary, and its preparation. Theoretical calculations of the calorific value will never take into account the conditions of absorption of fats and carbohydrates in the small intestine, changing depending on whether the diet is vegetable fiber or not taz. A significant increase in the amount of fiber can significantly reduce the amount of calories absorbed. The size of the absorption of proteins, fats and carbohydrates varies depending on time of day, the chemical environment of the stomach and intestines, which have been shown to digest this food. Repeatedly interacted with obese people, who at the time of dieting even more tyli.

Zanim deal with the problems of natural medicine, their patients suspected of lying taking high relationship with progress in weight loss. In fact, the body defend against weight loss, despite the depleted diet, accumulates, and so much more calories as fat than before the weight loss process. It is the primitive form of self-defense. This creates a yo-yo effect, or attempt to pre-weight loss followed by weight loss and then continue its growth. It is also true that the more you will eat, foods with high glycemic index, the faster will gain weight. Treatment of food industry also has a large influence on the growth or reduction in this index. The increase in this ratio occurs in the course of refining and brown sugar to a crystalline form, or removal of bran (fiber) during the milling of flour. The best are: sugar, maltose (beer) -110, glucose-100, potato-95. By eating low GI products as whole grain bread, cereals in the form of coarse meal, peas, and skillfully combining the nutrients in your meal, no problem, get rid of the overweight and for being without unnecessary starvation and samozadręczania. Many people are regularly experiencing the yo-yo effect falls into depression and seeks help from a psychiatrist.

I would also refute the myth that place weight gain due to intake of fats and not carbohydrates. Fashion for the use of low-fat diet and wysokowęglowodanowej which prevailed in the U.S. in the 80's and 90's of last century and lasted to the present, led to a lot of casualties and suffering. There is in the appropriate amount of Essential Fatty Acids Kewasów (EFA), which took part in all the biochemical reactions, protect the body from the activation of inflammatory processes.

 

4. What we know about fat and body fat in the body

a. the role of fats in the body

Modern trends in fat consumption show that it correlates with the rate of economic development of the country. The increase in national income is directly linked to changes in the structure of consumption. An increasing number of mainly saturated fats (solid) and carbohydrates. Carried out in Poland epidemiological studies on the prevalence of obesity suggest that practically every other adult Pole is overweight or obese. These same studies show that high content of fat in the diet of adult Poles. Physiological demand for fat is not fully understood and seems to depend on climatic conditions in which man lives. The animal fat is virtually impossible to cancel. It is important, however, that provided a daily diet of essential fatty acids, which are a source of vegetable oils and fish, to ensure the necessary amount of absorption of fat soluble vitamins - A, D, E and K. The more solid fat in the diet, including quality health diet is lower. Fat-rich foods require very little chewing, which contributes to the rapid adoption of excess energy, as opposed to products rich in fiber. In conjunction with their flavor of foods containing fat provides an incentive to choose foods promote weight gain. Fats belong to a large group of natural organic compounds are insoluble in water. They are the most concentrated source of energy - from 1 g trigger 9 kcal. They should be unsaturated fats, chemically nieutwardzane, devoid of trans fatty acids - such as margarine and provide 25-30% of the energy value of daily food intake. In humans, fat stored in adipose tissue are approximately 10 - 17% of body weight. They occur in plants and animals, a reserve material from which the constitution required him to produce energy. In plants they are present primarily in the seeds and pulp of fruit, animals and organisms in various organs, or as a separate body fat. In many animals, especially marine mammals such as in seals, a thermal insulation against temperature iskiej.

 

b. fat metabolism

Fats (lipids) are mixtures of esters of glycerol and higher fatty acids. Partially hydrolyzed, combined with the globulins in the blood, creating a fraction of lipoproteins. Are digested by the enzyme pancreatic lipase within the small intestine in the presence of bile salts as emulsifiers. They are then transported in the bloodstream as lipoproteins (fat + protein + fofolipid shell), and stored as triglycerides (glycerol + 3 fatty acid molecules) in fat cells. If you raise the body's energy needs, are released back into the bloodstream as fatty acids. When you connect to the glucose reaches the combustion and separation of energy. Mixing acids and glucose is necessary for energy production. Insufficient availability of carbohydrates leads to incomplete burning of fat, which leads to the formation of toxic intermediate products called ketones, and chemical imbalances in the blood, called ketosis. It may result in the use of organs and tissues as sources of glucose obtained from the protein degradation. A diet poor in carbohydrates leads to a large decrease in body weight, which is the main cause of water loss through the kidneys, which try to get rid of excess ketones in the body. Fat is essential for survival. Fat-free diet can cause serious problems. Linolenic acid, an essential fatty acid, is used in the liver to produce arachidonic acid. This unusual polyunsaturated acid is, together with protein building blocks of cell membranes. If necessary, it is converted into a group of chemical compounds that regulate blood pressure, contractions, blood clotting, bowel motility, and immune system work. These are short-term factors, which are produced locally, if necessary.

 

5. Breakdown of fats

 

Fats in chemical terms are divided into simple and complex.

 

Fats simple, constructed only with alcohol and fatty acids are divided into:

  • proper fats, or glycerides, in which alcohol is glycerol
  • waxes, in which alcohol is a monohydric alcohol wielowęglowy

 

Fats composed are divided into:

  • phospholipids containing bound phosphoric acid ester,
  • glycolipids (cerebrozydy, gangliosides) containing a component of a sugar
  • isoprenoid lipids including steroids and carotenoids, built from isoprene units.

 

 

Fats composed mainly phospholipids, which are an essential component of the fat cell. Phospholipids such as lecithin and cephalin can be found in every cell of the animal. Sphingomyelin fats are a major component of the brain and lung tissue. There are also cerebrozydy occurring in the brain, adrenal glands, kidneys, spleen, retina, egg yolk and roes of fish.

 

Depending on their origin there are two major categories of fats:

  • animal fats: we find them in meat, fish, butter, eggs, milk and dairy products,
  • Vegetable fats: they are present in vegetable oils, olive oil, nuts and margarine.

 

Lipids can also be divided into three categories depending on the type of fatty acids which they are composed:

  • Saturated fatty acids: in meat, eggs, milk and its products,
  • Monounsaturated fatty acids: in olive oil, fat geese and ducks,
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids: vegetable oils - sunflower, canola, corn, soybean, oil fruits.

 

Some lipids are responsible for elevated blood cholesterol levels. The ideal is to keep cholesterol at normal levels, creating conditions such that the "good" cholesterol (HDL) was as much a "bad" (LDL) as little as possible. "

 

It is for this reason to divide fats into the following three categories:

  • fats raise blood cholesterol levels: saturated fats are contained in meat, sausages, butter, cheese, lard, whole milk products and palm oil,
  • cholesterol lowering fats in the blood: the present in olive oil, oils from rapeseed, sunflower and corn
  • fats have no effect on cholesterol levels: in shellfish, eggs and chicken - without the skin.

 

Fat Fish has no effect on cholesterol metabolism. Relaxing the walls of blood vessels protects against heart disease and circulatory system, lowers triglyceride levels, prevents blood clots. It is therefore necessary to eat fatty fish - salmon, tuna, mackerel, herring, sardines. Note, however, that after the smoking process at high temperature becomes oxidized fat.

 

Due to the physical state fats are divided into liquid and solid:

  • Animal fats are solid (except for fish oil) where their main constituents are glycerides of higher saturated fatty acids,
  • This liquid fats - fish liver oil and vegetable oils. They consist mainly glycerides of higher fatty acids.

 

What is known about the role of fat in the body and its impact on our health:

  1. Set aside in the body lipids are storage of water.
  2. As supplementary material saves energy economy proteins preventing their digestion.
  3. They are a component of cell membranes, are involved in the synthesis of hormones prostacyclin, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, cholesterol.
  4. Fat and protein complexes maintain proper elasticity of the alveoli.
  5. Are the thermal insulation and absorbs shocks internal organs kidney, liver, spleen, eye, and keep them in a permanent stable position, preventing their movement
  6. These substrate in the biosynthesis of bile salts
  7. Are a source of essential fatty acids such as linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid.
  8. Will play an important in the creation of cell membranes and the structural elements of nerve tissue cells.
  9. Reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, allergies, arthritis, eczema, or allergic eczema, depression, fatigue, infections, PMS - premenstrual syndrome.
  10. They contain fat-soluble vitamins - A, D, E, K.
  11. Play an important role in the pathology of diseases of the cardiovascular system.
  12. They are a convenient source of backup reserve nutritive material of living organisms allow the functioning of the body outside the zone of thermal neutrality, maintaining a constant body temperature. Accumulated in fat tissue, protects against excessive heat release, allows for adoption at low temperatures.

 

Solid fats and unsaturated fatty acids are essential to maintaining good health and well-being. Participate in the production of many hormones (mostly estrogen), it is soluble vitamins A, D, E and K are involved in all the body's metabolic processes. Group known as polyunsaturated fatty acids can be divided into three subgroups: N6 (omega-6), N3 (omega-3), N9 (omega-9). N6 excess acid in most cooking oils can be dangerous due to the fact that the accelerated oxidation of LDL cholesterol, is then deposited in blood vessels. Most common oils such as soybean, sunflower, corn, sesame seed due to their inadequate composition (excess relative to N6 N3) and the fact that they are hot stamping, and therefore become oxidized, they should not be used by us for the purposes of foods. Adoption of appropriate doses of essential fatty acids omega-3 sub-EP (aeikozapentaenowego) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) relieves the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, reduces inflammation in chronic ulcerative colitis (Lesniewski's disease - Crohn's disease), asthma symptoms and even gingivitis. Charities in their operation can be inhibited by an excess of dietary omega-6. The optimal ratio of dietary N6: N3 should be 2: 1 and up to 4: 1 Just so. balanced diet consisting of consumption of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in proper proportions and quantities, we will ensure the health and well-being. Generally speaking, we eat too much solid fats, especially animal and too little PUFA and particularly omega-3 and 9 The largest amount, according to the proportion of N6: N3, is a fat fish, seeds of evening primrose, linseed and borage. Solid fats that raise cholesterol levels found in meat, butter, milk and przetworwch, lard, palm oil. Transporter of fat in the blood are cholesterol, fat temporarily connected for the duration of transport is called a triglyceride. Cholesterol is a substance formed by protein molecules (proteins).

 

6. Role of cholesterol in cholesterol organizmiePodział due to the size of the molecule:

  • VLDL - lipoprotein very low density
  • LDL - low density lipoprotein
  • HDL - high density lipoprotein
  • No. A, which is the construction of LDL cholesterol, but is surrounded by the adjacent protein molecule called apolipo. It is damaged (oxidized) LDL.

Cholesterol in the simplification called the,, bad "is the LDL and VLDL and the LPA is amended by the LDL molecule. Only HDL is our ally. All fractions of cholesterol, however, serve important functions in the body. The task of LDL is to transport fat from the liver to body cells, HDL discharged fat back to the liver. The total amount of all types of cholesterol in the blood should be approximately 200 mg / dl. The concentration of LDL should be below 130 mg / dL but higher than 35 mg / dl. The total amount carried by triglycerides should be less than 150 mg / dl. If LDL is high, it indicates an increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is appropriate therefore increasing HDL and lowering LDL cholesterol using the right type of unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 fish oil. Unrevised LDL cholesterol is not harmful but oxidized form, as a result of the action of free radicals, it is extremely dangerous to artery walls, as it causes atherosclerosis. a very important plant in our diet should be the garlic, which strongly inhibits the build-up in the arteries modified fatty acids and cholesterol. also extends the period of solidification and dissolves blood clots already formed. It is advisable or consumption of small quantities of butter, due to the fact that it contains isobutyric acid, protects against colon cancer. Some considered solid fats have no effect on increasing the level of cholesterol and are found in crustaceans, eggs fertilized by a rooster and chickens but without the skin. Those that lower cholesterol are present in olive oil, grape seed, linseed, borage, evening primrose. Mark however, that all these oils must be cold and punching. Pressed Oils hot, are oxidized and are very dangerous for your health. As far as the fish oils, they have no any effect on cholesterol metabolism but have a protective effect on the cardiovascular system by lowering triglyceride levels and preventing the formation of blood clots. But I would like to draw attention that most of their biological action is when they are fresh and fat contained in them is unoxidized. Fish after freezing and subjected to thermal treatment and smoking a fat contain less valuable, oxidized. Any margarine (transizomery) should be completely eliminated from our menu . It is produced from edible oils subjected to the process after the high pressure hydrogenation in the presence of nickel catalyst. The rationale for universal consumption of margarine, butter blends of oils, margarine and butter, was the information that does not cause increases in cholesterol levels. This is just part of the truth. fat margarine is completely niefizjologiczny for our body and very poorly digested in the gut. used in the production of nickel catalyst in the form of powder is not entirely possible to remove. collecting in the body, can cause adverse effects in damaging the mucous membranes, causing allergic reactions, changes in chromosomes in the bone marrow, can contribute to the development of cancer cells.

 

7. The role of plant cellulose in the Obesity prevention

Fiber as the organic material contained in all raw plants with low glycemic index (vegetables, legumes, fruits, grains in the raw state), meets a very important role in the digestion process, reducing the amount of carbohydrates absorbed, thus lowering blood sugar levels. Insoluble fiber allows for proper intestinal permeability. He participates in the formation of stools and prevents constipation. In the large intestine, at its base, multiply the intestinal bacteria of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group, which are responsible for its stable performance and thus the health of the whole organism. Soluble fiber - pectin, gum, reduces absorption of fat in the digestive process, thereby reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. Both types of fiber in conjunction with the bacteria L.acidophilus, minimize the effects of many toxic substances. Hindering their absorption, protect against colon cancer onset.

 

8. Obesity Prevention

We already know that the direct cause of obesity is excessive intake of carbohydrates. Some people even if they are still slim diet and this is due to the fact that their pancreas is not started releasing excessive amounts of insulin. Half a century ago, products with low glycemic index were the basis of human food and today the situation is reversed. The basis for food in developed countries are the products of High converted with a high glycemic index, low contents of valuable fiber, without qualitatively and quantitatively adequate vitamins and minerals. An extremely important issue in the prevention of obesity is the right way of combining nutrients, taking into account the way, the duration of their digestion in the stomach and intestines. Time of protein digestion in the stomach is about 2 - 3 hours. and depends on the concentration of digestive juices - mostly hydrochloric acid. So, before, during and after the meal do not dilute the digestive juices wypitymi fluids. Time of digestion of complex carbohydrates is about 40 minutes, fruits and vegetables 30 minutes. While in one meal, combine protein and carbohydrates, the stomach digests carbohydrates during 30 min and the protein is digested in the next hour and a half. It is a cause of dyspeptic problrmów. It is not advisable combining protein with fruits, the latter waiting to digest protein, after 30 minutes start to ferment, causing flatulence. People who have general problems with digestion, they should consume each type of product basis taking into account the duration of their digestion in the stomach. The simultaneous intake of protein and carbs is dangerous from the standpoint of biochemical, because exposing the body to too much congestion during the process of secretion of digestive enzymes and digestion. For protein foods include meat, fish, eggs, milk and dairy products, beans, broad beans, eggplant, nuts, seeds of plants. To carbohydrates-bread, cereal, potatoes, sugar and confectionery, honey, rice and corn. This division is not strict since in any listed (except meat) product are carbohydrates, fats and proteins in different proportions.

 

Principle of nutrients

  1. The protein can be combined with any kind of fat, and is especially recommended olive oil and cold stamping, grape seed oil, or a small amount of raw butter.
  2. Carbohydrates can be combined with the same types of fat.
  3. Protein is best combined with multi-colored raw vegetables (except for boiled potatoes, carrots, cauliflower, broccoli).
  4. Carbohydrates can also be safely combined in one meal with raw vegetables.
  5. Do not combine proteins and carbohydrates!

Please believe me that if such a method combining the use of nutrients is very easy to lose excess weight, maintain a healthy weight, have a good mood and enjoy good health and vitality.

I hope, dear reader, that after reading this study, the easier it will be to understand the mechanisms of metabolic processes that are associated with regulation of body weight and to select an appropriate diet.

Obesity prevention
 

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Niemal wszyscy uczniowie w wieku 15-16 lat (>90%) mają za sobą inicjację alkoholową. Średnia jednorazowa ilość alkoholu wypita przez 15-16 latka to ponad 60g (równowartość niemal 2 litrów piwa).