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Nie wszyscy ludzie zdają sobie sprawę z tego, że rodzaj i jakość spożywanych pokarmów może mieć wpływ na szybkość przemiany materii, wydolność i sprawność psychofizyczną organizmu. Badania przeprowadzone na terenie USA dowodzą, że około 80 - 90% zaistniałych chorób jest związanych z nieprawidłowym odżywianiem.
Przekonacie się Państwo, że wiadomości dotyczące tej problematyki, przedstawione w nietypowym ujęciu, są bardzo interesujące. Opis przebiegu procesów biochemicznych, jakie toczą się w organizmie przedstawiłem w znacznym uproszczeniu, tak by były bardziej czytelne i zrozumiałe.

1. Czynniki wpływające na wytwarzanie energii w organizmie
Czynniki zewnętrzne środowiska, w którym żyjemy, tryb życia, a przede wszystkim sposób odżywiania znajdują swoje odzwierciedlenie w biochemicznym funkcjonowaniu organizmu. Decydują o sprawności funkcjonowania systemu odpornościowego oraz sposobie reakcji organizmu na oddziaływanie stresu fizycznego i psychicznego. Obrazowo mówiąc, wpływają bezpośrednio na stan naszego zdrowia oraz kondycję psychiczną.

We are accustomed also to the wording used in advertising of pharmaceuticals, which refers to "treat the symptoms of the disease," which by definition is meaningless. The ordinary man does not distinguish between the concept of treating the disease from the treatment of its symptoms, which is already occurring on its impact. They perpetuate our consciousness the image of the miraculous chemical pills to eliminate any pain, and thus the symptoms of the disease. These activities have nothing to do with the desire to improve the health of society, the only objective is to achieve maximum financial revenue by pharmaceutical companies. Chronic drug abuse toksemia induced chemical can disrupt the biochemical function of the body and reduce the efficiency of energy production.

 

The correct operation of all body cells, which are the basic unit of the structure, determines the type, quantity and quality of nutrients consumed. These are proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Called macro elements and trace elements and vitamins serve as catalysts of all chemical reactions. Improper diet and lack of any of these factors leads to the disclosure in the initial period of minor ailments, and ultimately degenerative changes and the development of cancer cells. The most optimal way out of this situation is the conscious choice of nutrient intake, and, where necessary, selective dietary supplementation of appropriate additional components. Their deficiency in the diet due to the way plant and animal breeding and food processing technology.

 

Most vitamins can be synthesized by the human body, but for example, vitamin C and micronutrients must be supplied with food. Their source is food and water, and absorption takes place in the gut, the skin and in the process of respiration. Maintaining a healthy balance of quantitative and proportions between the various elements in the system is extremely important.

 

To disturbances in the biochemical functioning of the organism contribute to impaired digestion and absorption, defective nutrition, abuse of pharmaceutical preparations, eating foods containing preservatives, and drinking contaminated water from the tap. The consequence of this is to develop a disease called civilization, which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, obesity, allergies including asthma, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism endocrine, rheumatic diseases, infections, etc.

 

2. Primary metabolism

The basic metabolic functions of the energy concerns of the body at rest. Provides energy to maintain body temperature, metabolic activity of the brain, liver, kidney, muscle, gastrointestinal motility and blood and lymph circulation. In adults its size is about 5900 - 7500 kJ, ie, 1400-1800 kcal / day.

The three basic components of food carbohydrates, fats and proteins in varying degrees are involved in this process. Proteins are the basis for building blocks of the body, and the main substrates to generate energy are carbohydrates and fats. Applicability-lowing correlation between them: 100 g protein equivalent in terms of calories and 100 grams of carbohydrate 44.1 g fat.

 

3. Proper metabolism

Metabolic rate (metabolism) is the body of biochemical changes that allow the exchange of energy and matter between environment and organism. Each of us is a biochemical individuality, taking into account the overall internal cell metabolism. The human body is referred to by nutritionists as unsustainable, but a self-regulating system and energy metabolism. In living cells there is a series of enzymatic reaction of forming the so-called. metabolic pathways by which a cell can divide, develop and maintain its own vital functions.

 

Metabolism processes include the synthesis of or-ganicznych so. Anabolic - involving energy supply, and distribution - catabolic, during which chemical energy is released. The normal metabolism is when anabolic processes are in equilibrium with each other catabolic transformations. Both these processes are determined by overall energy balance of the body. The positive balance we have to do when anabolic processes predominate, and negative - catabolic processes.

 

Catabolic chemical reactions are those in which the following breakdown of organic molecules - carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Released from their energy is consumed by the system for all life processes - the transport of molecules across cell membranes, conduction of impulses in the nervous system, the synthesis of new substances, building blocks and organic compounds, governance of water and electrolyte balance, tissue regeneration, mechanical work, heat, nutrient absorption and excretion of metabolic waste products. Long-term predominance of catabolic processes may be a negative energy balance and state of the disease. In the liver, especially if there are processes of transformation of fatty acids, which produced the compounds are used as an alternative energy source instead of glucose.

 

Anabolic processes leading to the building of the organism-specific proteins, the conversion for your own needs carbohydrates and fats. During the intensity of anabolic processes of synthesis, glucose and amino acids are converted into fatty acids and are the opposite of catabolic processes.

 

4. Energy Production

Metabolic process begins with collection of nutrients, transforming them into internal building blocks of specific substances and compounds for energy, transport and storage, and ends with expulsion of unnecessary and harmful products of these transformations.

Metabolism and energy are closely linked to a string of consecutive in a specific sequence of chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes, and thus remain under constant surveillance. This function is exercised at the level of cell nuclei, which directs the biosynthesis of proteins in ribosomes and energy production in mitochondria. Ultimate control over the whole of these changes has a central nervous system (brain) by neuro-humoral regulation.

 

On the metabolic rate of the external factors affect the following:

  • quality and quantity of food intake,
  • nature of the work of physical and mental
  • emotional state and the amount of ambient temperature.

 

 

From my observation is that as we age the body metabolic rate changes, as a crucial impact on diet, lifestyle and hereditary factors.

 

The pace of metabolic effect to inside of the following factors:

 

  • rate of digestion and absorption of nutrients,
  • amount of hormone secreted by the endocrine glands.

 

A big impact on the rate of metabolism in the body is the content of elements, vitamins and proportions and interrelationships that exist between them.

Phosphorus is essential in all cycles of energy production in the cell. The high proportion of phosphorus in relation to calcium indicates a high metabolic rate and its rate decreases when increasing the amount of calcium in the body.

Phosphorus is stored in cells as a chemical compound - ATP (adenosine triphosphate). It is a universal battery, fulfilling the role of energy carrier.

All the synthesis processes are used in the end to make ATP, which is constantly renewed in the process of oxidation (burning) of glucose, fatty acids and ketone bodies in the chain of intracellular respiration. ATP breakdown in the process of succumbing to the dephosphorylation of ADP (adenozynodwu-phosphate), releasing a portion of the energy that the body uses for all energy transformations.

 

5. Effect of hormones on metabolic rate

The correct functioning of the endocrine glands and the hormones secreted by them, is determined by their mutual synergistic or antagonistic effects in relation to each other.

An example might be the thyroid, which can lead to hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency.

All metabolic processes of living organisms can be compared to the string of pearls. The break causes the thread linking them is that each bead moves in another direction and loses connectivity with another. Any one organ dysfunction involve failure of another, as manifested through the end of metabolic disorders and diseases of the body.

 

6. Thyroid

The thyroid is an odd organ of internal secretion-ment is located on the anterolateral surface of the neck, below the laryngeal cartilage called "Adam's apple." It belongs to the big man's glands weighing from 10 to 20 g. Due to the fact that it lies superficially under the skin, is the only endocrine gland (secreting hormones) that can be immediately noticeable to the naked eye. Because of its location is readily available testing and evaluation of the size, which facilitates the rapid detection of any irregularities.

 

The thyroid gland is composed of two symmetrical wings connected to the isthmus. The flesh of the organ is composed of two cell types with different functions and construction. Follicular cells are involved in the synthesis of hormones and constitute about 80% of the entire gland. They create structures called vesicles, which have a diameter of 0.05-0.12 mm and are filled with colloid-containing inactive thyroid hormone - thyroglobulin. The remaining 20% ??of the gland is also called C cells okołopęcherzykowymi that fill the spaces between the bubbles. They produce a hormone - calcitonin, somatostatin and serotonin. Surface of the prostate capsule connective covers. On the rear surface of the thyroid, there are two pairs of parathyroid glands are responsible for the calcium-phosphate system.

 

Metabolic system mainly depends on the function and thyroid hormone secreted by it. The task of the thyroid after-consists in the production of three hormones vital to the functioning of the human body: thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and calcitonin. Proper operation of the thyroid depends on the amount absorbed to the inside of iodine, which must be supplied to the body with food.

 

Thyroid hormones are responsible for the proper functioning of all body tissues. Their function is to stimulate the metabolic activity of all body tissues, which is reflected in increased total consumption of oxygen, glucose and fats at the cellular level, stimulation of the absorption of carbohydrates and the acceleration of cholesterol metabolism.

 

Thyroid function is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary, which together form the thyroid negative feedback. The hypothalamus produces a neurohormone tyreoliberynę TRH, which action-mandate acting on the anterior pituitary stimulates it to produce thyroid stimulating hormone TSH. However, TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete hormones T3 and T4.

 

a. Hypothyroidism

Reduction in metabolic rate may be due to hypothyroidism, and reduce the amount of hormone secreted by it. Decreases heat production and oxygen consumption. The body temperature is lowered, the patient constantly feels cold - even when it's warm outside, complains of easy fatigue, nagging weakness, drowsiness, slow down physically and mentally impaired attention and clearly inferior memory.

Increasing body weight, despite the lack of appetite, swelling occur, especially on the face - skin is dispensed, bruised, with swollen eyelids and narrowing the gaps. Hair fall out, become rough, brittle and dull. Appear troublesome constipation. Hypothyroidism in women can also be caused by excessive production of estrogen, and these increases may be due to the increased supply of copper in the diet, or excessive absorption of this element in the gut. Periods are irregular and last longer than usual. Men often suffer from impotence.

Hypothyroidism is sometimes also caused the accumulation of cobalt within the organ. The excess of this metal is regarded by biochemists as harmful. Iron is therefore antagonistic to the cobalt, so the decrease in iron in the body can be caused by increasing amounts of cobalt in the internal organs - mainly in the thyroid. This phenomenon arises from the fact that both metals compete for access to plasma proteins, which transport both metals to the internal organs. So cobalt, and iron is not absorbed into the thyroid secretion by impairing the function of her hormones T3 and T4.

 

Hypothyroidism can be caused by excessive production of insulin by the pancreas and a deficiency of chromium. The metal part of the receptor cell membranes and is actively involved in the transport of glucose from the blood into cells. His non-selection causes an increase in blood glucose (sugar) in the blood, which forces the pancreas overproduction of insulin (hyperinsulinizm) and is one of the factors leading to developing diabetes II °.

Hypothyroidism can lead to excessive and prolonged consumption of soy products, cabbage and dairy products. Consuming excessive amounts of calcium preparations also reduces the secretion of thyroid hormones T3 and T4, and calcitonin, which is responsible for the absorption of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract and deposition in the bones of it. Excess calcium in the body blocks the absorption and utilization of iron, which leads to excessive accumulation of cobalt, etc.

 

Paradoxically, an excess of milk consumed a large amount of calcium accelerates the occurrence of osteoporosis. An oversupply of magnesium leads to a secondary calcium deficiency. Promotes health maintenance so the correct ratio between the two elements.

 

b. Hyperthyroidism

A medical condition caused by excessive production of thyroxine and triiodothyronine is called hyperthyroidism. High secretion of thyroid hormone speeds up metabolism and increases with increasing amounts of potassium. Speeding up the metabolism is associated with excessive energy production. The speeding up metabolism providing increased ratio between potassium and calcium, and between phosphorus and calcium.

 

Clinical signs of hyperthyroidism are the same regardless of the cause which produces them. Patients have many symptoms and often complain of constant fatigue, weight loss despite good appetite, heart rate, sweating, trembling hands, and feeling hot, swollen feet and legs. To this may be as sleep disturbances, persistent diarrhea, tearfulness, irritability, and explosiveness. In women, there may be disturbances of the menstrual cycle or to stop menstruation.

 

7. Adrenal

The adrenals are two endocrine glands adjacent to the upper poles of kidneys. They are flat with dark triangular or półksiężycowatym. Each adrenal mass is 4.5 - 5 g. Adrenal gland consists of two interconnected parts: the outer, bearing the name of the adrenal cortex and the internal - the adrenal medulla.

 

a. Functions of the adrenal

Adrenal cortex comprises 90% of the entire gland produces hormones - glucocorticoids, most important of which is cortisol, mineralocorticoids - mostly small amounts of aldosterone and sex hormones - androgens. Adrenal medulla produces the so-called. catecholamines, namely adrenaline and noradrenaline, which are substances that are present also in the nervous system.

Thanks kortykoidom man can overcome various internal disorders, to withstand the cold and high temperatures, to endure pain, to overcome the infection and to mobilize forces to fight. Cortisol is a life-threatening situations inhibits protein synthesis, alternately stimulates glucose and fats in the formation of red and white blood cells in bone marrow, causing sodium and water retention and increases potassium excretion by the kidneys. Mineralocorticoids, mainly aldosterone, are of great importance in maintaining proper fluid and electrolyte management system, regulating blood pressure, cardiovascular function, cardiac and skeletal muscle.

 

Catecholamines - adrenaline and noradrenaline, involved in main-dependents standing blood pressure. In effect they spasm arteries, increased heart rate and increase contraction of the heart muscle, increase blood pressure, relaxation of the bronchial tubes. They also have a strong influence on metabolic processes such as increased blood sugar levels as a result of worsening degradation of glycogen in the liver and muscles and by inhibiting the secretion of insulin in the pancreas. Cause a breakdown of fats, ie. lipolysis, which allows you to run the energy stocks in states that require a large mobilization of the body.

 

Short-term stress makes the influence of the hormone adrenaline secreted by the adrenal glands to constrict the blood vessels supplying the skin and internal organs. Blood is pumped from them into the muscles, as they may participate in combat and defense against external threat. This impairs the supply of nutrients to body cells and removing unwanted substances from their normal metabolic waste.

 

b. Adrenal Insufficiency

Long-term and chronic stress effects on the body impairs the secretion of hormones by the adrenal glands as a result of exhaustion function of this organ as a result of causing the slowdown FOR IN-exchange material.

 

8. Effect of nutrition on metabolic rate

Each of us is a biochemical individuality, and therefore, in the selection of nutrients, should take into account the rate of metabolic rate. Improper nutrition can cause metabolic disorders or vice versa - its outcome.

 

Unless we take into account these two factors, it is come to the conclusion that there is no universal and uniform way of eating the same for all people. The choice of food energy as the optimum material, should not depend on the current model of diet-enforced by nutritionists, but metabolic rate and physiological state of the organism.

 

I think that is a mistake to call the choice of diet and nutritional diet. This concept should be reserved for human patients, requiring a separate selection of nutrients and their food favor a more rapid return to health.

Taking into account the metabolic rate divided people into two groups, with fast and slow metabolism. When analyzing the results of research found that 80% have a slow metabolism of 20% fast (in Poland 75% and 25%).

 

9. Free energy production

The high value of the ratio of calcium to phosphorus ratio indicates the free energy production in the body, where the advantage gain anabolic (synthesis) of the catabolic (breakdown).

Reduction of metabolism may be due to low intake of protein and high carbs.

Another factor may be reduced absorption of all nutrients, resulting from disturbances in secretion of digestive juices by the digestive organs and disease processes leading to damage of cells (enterocytes) lining the surfaces of the small intestine.

It may also be affected by malnutrition of the body due to lack of supply of essential nutrients - or starvation.

 

People with slow metabolism, characterized by:

 

  1. slow secretion of gastric acid
  2. slow digestion and protein intolerance,
  3. low blood pressure,
  4. feeling cold, low body temperature,
  5. state of chronic fatigue
  6. prone to depression,
  7. tendency to gain weight and body fat accumulation in the region of the hips and thighs.

 

 

 

The recommended diet is to accelerate the pace of metabolism.

 

This can be achieved based on the following guidelines:

  • The main meal, which is breakfast and lunch, should contain in its composition of protein of the so-called advantage. highest bioavailability to the body (the eggs are 90% bio-stępności, meat 60 - 70%).
  • You should consume a moderate amount of complex carbohydrates, such as potatoes, meal and rice.
  • Reduce consumption of milk and its products up to 2 days in the you-once a week.
  • Substantially reducing the amount of sugar consumed and food products produced at its base.
  • Increase the number of meals for 3 - 4 per day while exchangers reducing their size.

10. Rapid generation

The high value of the ratio of phosphorus relative to calcium suggests the rapid generation of energy in the body, where catabolic processes gain an advantage (decay) over the anabolic (synthesis). The aim is to obtain enough energy from burning carbohydrates, fats and proteins, so people with fast metabolism have a high demand for nutrients.

 

People with fast metabolism is characterized by:

  • high glycolytic activity (burning of glucose)
  • continuously high blood glucose (sugar) in blood,
  • intolerance of carbohydrates with high glycemic index,
  • free enzyme secretion by the pancreas.

 

The purpose of dietary recommendations for people with fast metabolism is slowing metabolism.

 

This can be achieved based on the following guidelines:

  1. The proportion of fat and protein intake should be 3: 1
  2. Should be introduced to the diet of high biological protein bio-availability, that is, eggs and meat.
  3. Eat more dairy products, preferably not processed rzonych (from the farm.)
  4. Reduce intake of complex carbohydrates. Categorically avoid sugar and products made on its basis, because it promotes the production of excessive production of fat.

11. The role of microelements in metabolism

Applied analytical methods for assessing quantities of elements in the body are mainly based on the study of blood and urine. Marking its current composition in the blood may be niemiarodajnym study because compensatory mechanisms operate to keep their levels in the blood, tissue at the expense of reserves. Their number in the body can be therefore inadequate, despite normal levels in the blood. For individual areas of the body, there is a definite ion equilibrium, which is maintained at a constant level. It's different in different liquids: extracellular - in the blood and lymph, cerebrospinal fluid and other intracellular fluid.

A good assessment of mineral metabolism in the body is the elemental analysis of hair. This test consists of burning hair in a photometer plasma and determining the nature and quantity of elements. As a result of comparative tests showed that the tissue of the hair is the best material to carry out this type of test. Based on the ratio between the different elements can be assessed by their activity and regularity of the body's metabolic processes.

 

Of the 104 naturally occurring elements, 81 is located in tissues and body fluids. <

  1. Four of them: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen constitute 96% of our body.
  2. Those whose number is 0.01% of body weight or makrobiopierwiastkami called macro. These include: calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, sodium and chlorine.
  3. Other, weighing less than 0.01%, are called micronutrients or mikrobiopierwiastków. These include iron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, nickel, cobalt, chromium and manganese. Recent studies show that the list of elements belonging to the micronutrients has not yet been closed. Unspoken even to the end of the role of nickel, tin and strontium.

The fourth group includes highly toxic elements, whose presence in the body in any case is undesirable and are thallium, lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and aluminum. Their significance depends on the concentration, duration of action and the ability of the system for their elimination. They are slowly eliminated naturally by the kidneys in the urine, liver - the feces through the digestive tract and then through the skin. Unfortunately, however, have a tendency to accumulate in the parenchymal organs, especially the liver, kidneys and pancreas.

Can accumulate selectively in certain tissues such as lead and aluminum in the bones, lead, mercury and aluminum in the brain tissue, and cadmium in hair roots.

Toxic elements impair energy production. There is a chance of mutual chemical interaction between toxic metals and organic toxins, resulting in a yet unexplored connections harm. If their cumulative amount exceeds the ability of the organism to their deportation, there is a disease that I call toksemią.

 

Macro-and micronutrients are present in the body in very specific areas of concentration, and their deficiency or excess leads to serious metabolic disorders causing illness and even death. Only some of them: magnesium, zinc, iodine can achieve higher levels without contributing to greater damage.

Physiological processes of life depend not only on the composition and concentration of particular elements, but also on their proportion in the body. Most of them have in relation to their synergistic or antagonistic. Excess or deficiency of one element influences the change of the content of others. Among trace elements, there are synergistic and antagonistic relationships directly affect the metabolism of the body.

 

Maintaining balance between them has in many cases more important than their higher or lower concentrations. The interactions between them, as well as toxic metals has a major influence on their absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and the absorption of nutrients, as well as the absorption cell. It was established such that the magnesium deficiency or excess of calcium in the body facilitates the absorption of lead, zinc deficiency promotes the absorption of cadmium, excess phosphates hinder absorption of calcium and magnesium.

In the case of a shortage of elements in the system increases their ability to acquire a surplus decreases. Thus there is a natural protective barrier against food poisoning.

 

An extremely important factor in stabilizing and facilitating the absorption of microelements are vitamins. Many macro-and micro-elements has adequate vitamin, which facilitates their absorption from the gut and further utilization in the body. All vitamins produced by the body or supplied in the diet, serve as a "spark" in generating energy.

In assessing whether the lack of an excess of elements can be determined to reveal the body's predisposition to certain diseases. As an example, that a shortage of zinc, selenium, silicon may indicate a propensity for infectious diseases, the excess iron with a higher susceptibility to tissue damage caused by free radicals, while an excess of calcium relative to magnesium with a tendency to constipation, muscle soreness and sleep disturbances .

Metabolism
 

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