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Disorders of digestion and absorption

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Zgodna jest opinia autorytetów świata medycyny, że zdecydowana większość chorób ma swój początek w jelitach, jako wyniku zaburzeń trawiennych. Zaburzenia trawienia i wchłaniania są jednymi z najczęściej występujących dolegliwości i przyczyną częstego zasięgania porad u lekarza. Spowodowane są najróżniejszymi czynnikami pochodzenia zewnętrznego: niewłaściwym sposobem odżywiania się, złą jakością produktów spożywczych oraz błędami kulinarnymi. Notoryczne łamanie zasad prawidłowego odżywiania się pociąga za sobą następstwa dysfunkcji narządów trawiennych, co w efekcie wpływa na zaburzenia pracy wszystkich na-rządów wewnętrznych i w końcu całego organizmu.

W rozdziale tym pragnę przedstawić Państwu przyczyny najczęściej pojawiających się dolegliwości ze strony przewodu pokarmowego, powiązane z zaburzeniami trawienia i wchłaniania składników odżywczych.

1. Zaburzenia trawienia
Zespołem zaburzeń trawienia określa się zespół objawów chorobowych wynikających z niedostatecznego trawienia składników pokarmowych, którego objawy w potocznym języku nazywa się niestrawnością lub dyspepsją. Zaburzenia trawienia są spowodowane dysfunkcją i chorobami narządów trawiennych oraz zmianami ilościowymi i jakościowymi wydzielanych przez nie soków trawiennych.
Niestrawność nie jest charakterystyczna dla konkretnego schorzenia i objawia się bólem brzucha, uczuciem pełności, odbijaniem, wzdymaniem, gazami, przelewaniem, burczeniem, uczuciem sytości po spożyciu nawet niewielkiej porcji posiłku. Czasami jednocześnie występują nudności, wymioty oraz biegunki lub zaparcia stolca.

1. Digestive disorders

Digestive distress syndrome defined set of symptoms of disease resulting from inadequate digestion of nutrients, with the symptoms in everyday language is called indigestion or dyspepsia. Digestive disorders are caused by the dysfunction and diseases of the digestive organs and the quantitative and qualitative changes in secreted by the digestive juices.

Indigestion is not a characteristic of a particular disease and is characterized by abdominal pain, feeling of fullness, belching, wzdymaniem, gases, decantation, rumble, a feeling of fullness after eating even a small portion of the meal. Sometimes, while nausea, vomiting and diarrhea or constipation.

 

2. Nutritional Mistakes

The most common cause of digestive disorders and associated symptoms of dyspepsia are overeating animal fats, animal protein, onions, chocolate, greasy spicy Mexican cuisine or Italian, etc. The biggest problem for us is that we can not postpone the bucket at the right time, doin more his palate. The result of eating a heavy intake is excessive production of hydrochloric acid by the stomach. This acid can destroy the insulation of protective mucus covering the gastric wall from the inside and cause acute and chronic inflammation and ulcers.

A large quantity of food consumed can not be digested by the end of the failure of internal organs secreting digestive enzymes. Do not be consumed part of the fermentation in the intestines, resulting in dyspeptic symptoms described above.

At some point your body says stop, enough, and we suffer from a disease which ends in bed rest. It can be seen that when the disease is felt less need to eat, because the whole body and its digestive organs need a respite. An increasing desire to drink fluids, and during this period are deposited in the organs expel waste products and toxins.

 

Please believe that lie dormant within us an extraordinary force with virtually unlimited recovery. After the illness, though weakening, we feel the return of vitality.

 

3. Saliva

Symptoms of indigestion due to insufficient digestion of carbohydrates is observed as a result of reduced production of saliva during bacterial and viral salivary gland infection parasympathetic nerves innervating the salivary glands, facial palsy (branches of the trigeminal nerve), atropine poisoning and botulism. Quite the contrary - these symptoms are excessive salivation causes found in diseases of peripheral nerves and brain, and poisoning by heavy metals.

 

4. Stomach

One of the most common causes of digestive disorders is acute or chronic gastritis, which included an inflammatory disease process are the stomach wall. Gastritis is often referred to incorrectly as gastritis. Complaints may be such as peptic ulcer: the growing or resigning after some meals, upper abdominal pain, which can radiate to the back or chest, with nausea, vomiting, or without them. Sometimes symptoms are limited only to a greater or lesser discomfort in the abdomen.

 

Another, equally often the cause of digestive disorders is a peptic ulcer, which will generate a single ulcers (rarely multiple), stomach or duodenum, where the inflammatory process is covered by the entire thickness of the mucosa, often reaching deep into the muscle lamellae. Pain after meals and late at night, heartburn, acid reflux, nausea, vomiting rarely are the most characteristic symptoms of peptic ulcer. It arises spontaneously heals slowly and tends to recur in autumn and spring. Peptic ulcer may occur suddenly under the influence of psychological shock, burns or injuries and bears the name of acute stress ulcer, but most cases are due to chronic ulcers. One and the other is often accompanied by complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding.

 

Digestive disorders may result from the abuse of pharmaceutical preparations, not only directly damaging the protective layer of mucus, but the gastric mucosa. Just to name some of them as acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used mostly to treat inflammation, arthritis, antibiotics, supplements deficiency of potassium, magnesium and calcium, theophylline or aminophylline.

 

Unfavorable to the stomach wall are stimulants, which stimulate excessive secretory glands and these are nicotine, black coffee, alcoholic beverages - the most acidic wine and beer. As a result, their consumption may occur hyperacidity symptoms, namely heartburn, acid and a return of pain in the hole podsercowym.

Reflux

A common cause of indigestion is gastroesophageal reflux disease that causes the entry of acidic gastric contents into the esophagus, causing irritation of the mucous membrane and produce inflammation. Another is the duodeno-gastric reflux, which causes the release into the alkaline content of the duodenum to the acidic gastric contents. The consequence of this are digestive disorders, heartburn and a feeling of bitter taste in my mouth.

 

5. Pancreatic Diseases

Common cause of digestive disorders are diseases of the pancreas caused by acute and chronic inflammation, urolithiasis closing lumen of excreting enzymes into the duodenum, partial or total removal of the organ operational due to cancer or cystic fibrosis of the pancreas.

The result of these diseases is to reduce the secretion or the complete lack of enzymes: lipase consuming digesting fats and proteins pepsin and trypsin, which leads to impaired digestion of nutrients.

 

a. Disorders of protein digestion

Digestion of proteins is complex, multistep and occurs in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. So you can not describe them only in terms of disturbances in the functioning of the pancreas, they may be due to damage to internal organs producing individual digestive enzymes, and all organs: stomach, pancreas and small intestine.

 

Absence or deficiency of hydrochloric acid pickling, or any protein enzyme leads to impaired digestion and the process of a variety of symptoms. Lesions are also known genetic defects that interfere with the synthesis of digestive enzymes, but not so far detected no abnormal gene, which could be responsible for it.

 

Lock digestion and absorption of proteins may occur within the cells of the small intestine and may be caused by a deficiency of the enzyme erypsyny which decomposes albumozy and peptones (protein components), as a continuation of the action of pepsin.

 

Another reason may be that damage to intestinal epithelial cells (enterocytes) or faulty construction, as exemplified by celiac disease - celiac disease, involving the inability to digest plant protein - gluten. It leads ultimately to atrophy of intestinal villi and impaired absorption of all nutrients. For the smooth surface, devoid of absorbent layer, few nutrients can penetrate and start condition called malabsorption. This is a general term used to describe the same disorder caused by various factors, which may be caused by damage to the intestines of cows' milk intolerance, bacterial and viral infections, parasites, yeast, frequent use of antibiotics and other drugs and chemicals radiotherapy.

The end result of the disease is impairment of intestinal digestion and absorption of all nutrients, ie proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, inorganic compounds, or only some of them.

 

b. Disorders of digestion of fat in pancreatic disease

In diseases of the pancreas, in connection with impairments of its production of lipase, is also ill-digested fat. This symptom is diarrhea with visible admixture of fat naked eye drops, where the irretrievable loss is 40 - 50% of the amount consumed. This results in malabsorption of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. The body is unable to produce enough energy for other metabolic changes, because when carbohydrates are fats (50%), a basic material to produce it. Disturbance in the economy is hormonal, blood pressure, blood clotting, intestinal peristalsis and the work of the immune system.

 

6. Disorders of digestion of fats in the liver

Impaired digestion of fats is also associated with diseases, which decreases the amount excreted bile and its composition is disturbed. Inflammation occurs in the liver and bile duct, bile duct lithiasis.

Treatment is based on supplementing the diet of natural products containing animal and plant enzymes, supporting the liver and pancreas.

 

7. Atrophy of the digestive organs

Atrophy of organs that produce digestive juices may be associated with age and occur in the elderly. In the initial period there are bloating, diarrhea or constipation. Non-digested remains of food, arrears in the gut, are subject to decay and contribute to the release of toxins poisoning the entire body. Long-term persistence of this condition impairs the absorption of nutrients, which can lead to weight loss, weakness, malaise, poor working immune system, predisposing to the development of cancer cells.

8. Disorders of carbohydrate digestion

The most common disorder of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates is the intolerance of milk sugar (lactose), which is present in large quantities in dairy products. This is due to deficiency of pancreatic enzyme lactase, which enables the distribution of lactose into easily digestible simple sugars - glucose and galactose. The production of this enzyme decreases with age and is characterized by intolerance (dyspepsia), cow's milk. Lactose is not digested gnilnemu process in the large intestine, causing bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.

 

9. Causes of disorders of digestion and absorption in children

Disorders of digestion and absorption processes are closely related. Malabsorption determined the final consequences of impaired transport of nutrients from the intestine into the body. Poorly digested food can not be absorbed through the lining of the intestines and produce the final result is malnutrition, edema, muscular atrophy and progressive emaciation.

 

The degree of damage to the organs involved in the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients, depends on the time of exposure to factors causing them. Unless appear in childhood, is the most common reason for this is intolerant of nutrients (proteins of cow's milk), milk sugar (lactose) and protein gluten contained in wheat, barley, oats, rye and foods made from them, such as cereal , cereals, flour, bread and pasta.

You can not predict with whom the child proves to be an innate characteristic intolerance of these components.

 

Parents should worry the following symptoms occurring in their child:

  • lack of weight gain,
  • chronic anemia caused by iron deficiency,
  • skin rashes
  • frequent diagnosis of regurgitation of food,
  • abundant, loose, greasy, smelly stools,
  • diarrhea with blood,
  • loss of appetite,
  • bad mood and irritability.

The body is not able to absorb the appropriate amount of even the basic nutrients needed for current energy production and necessary for the development of the organism. The child, in connection with chronic malnutrition, has weakened the immune system, is prone to bacterial and viral infections. Why not come to such a significant deficit of protein that appear swollen, limp muscles, skin is pale and dry, dull hair, oral mucosal live-red, showing a shortage of vitamins, whose absorption is also inadequate.

Other factors causing impaired digestion and absorption, associated with damage to the intestinal mucosa, intestinal parasites are infection, typhoid bacilli paraduru and red-Wonka.

 

10. The consequences of disorders of digestion and absorption

While a child does not turn because of the disturbing symptoms and did not eliminate from your diet factors causing digestive disorders - gluten, cow's milk and other allergenic substances, the result of this process is impaired absorption due to permanent and extensive damage to the intestinal villi bliznowatym (bulges increase the mucosal surface absorption). They will remain until the end of life disorders of digestion and absorption of all nutrients.

 

Malnutrition impairs the body's metabolic processes of all - getting energy from ingested carbohydrates and fats, and impaired protein synthesis resulting from a shortage of suitable amino acids. This has a negative impact on the immune sys-tem, the regeneration of tissues, disrupting, reproductive and excretory.

These symptoms are always worrying and require from the physician collect from the patient interview for a very careful diet and execute additional studies establishing the cause of these disorders.

Disorders of digestion and absorption
 

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